function results, but not controlled for type of HRT namely Prempro. Thus the results are significantly lower
given that with MPA and pregnant equine estrogen women perform worse--jk
Enhanced Cognitive Performance with Estrogen Use in Non-Demented
Community-Dwelling Older Women
http://works.bepress.com/joann_tschanz/33/J Am Geriatr
Soc. 1999 Oct;47(10):1171-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10522948
examine the association between history of postmenopausal estrogen use and
cognitive function in a large sample of nondemented community-dwelling older
A community of older residents in Cache County, Utah.
total of 2338 nondemented women aged 65 and older.
subjects were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE).
Self-reported information on current and past use of estrogen after menopause
was also obtained using a structured interview. Estrogen use was trichotomized
as: no use, past use, and current use. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was
determined and was dichotomized by the presence of an epsilon4 allele. A series
of variance/covariance models was conducted with the 3MSE score as the
dependent variable, first considering estrogen use alone, then adding,
sequentially as covariates, education, age, health status, APOE genotype,
current depression status, and history of head injury.
simplest bivariate model, the 3MSE means (and confidence intervals) were 92.1
(91.7-92.4), 93.5 (93.1-93.9), and 94.4 (94.0-94.7) for never-, past-, and
current users, respectively. In the final model (R2 = 0.28), no use of estrogen
replacement therapy (P = .006), lower education (P < .001), poorer perceived
health status (P = .035), current depression (P = .014), and presence of at
least one APOE epsilon4 allele (P < .001) each independently predicted lower
3MSE score. Both current and past estrogen users had significantly higher 3MSE scores
than never-users (P = .0063 and P = .0096, respectively).
large community study, women who had
used estrogen after menopause scored higher on the
3MSE. This finding remained, even after
controlling for the effects of
age, education, APOE genotype, and other variables that may affect cognition. These
data support studies reporting a beneficial role of estrogen on cognition in
postmenopausal women, particularly among current estrogen users.
Oestrogen replacement and cognitive
Reviews in Gynaecological Practice, Volume 1, Issue 2, Summer 2001, Pages 100-107 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811901908870
Oestrogen exerts its influences on almost all systems of
the human body including the brain. Recent brain scanning studies have shown
that oestrogen has a
fundamental influence on the brain organisation patterns in post menopausal
women and profound effects oncognitive
especially with regard to short term or working
memory and visual memory. There is
increasing evidence that oestrogen may
prevent the onset of Alzheimer's
disease and improve aspects of social and physical function in
elderly women. These are of
importance especially with the demographic changes in ageing. Oestrogen appears to
potentiate the effect of
cholinesterase inhibitors used in treating Alzheimer's.