FEMALE HORMONE REPLACEMENT

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Positive cognitive function results, but not controlled for type of HRT namely Prempro.  Thus the results are significantly lower given that with MPA and pregnant equine estrogen women perform worse--jk

Enhanced Cognitive Performance with Estrogen Use in Non-Demented Community-Dwelling Older Women

http://works.bepress.com/joann_tschanz/33/J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999 Oct;47(10):1171-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10522948

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between history of postmenopausal estrogen use and cognitive function in a large sample of nondemented community-dwelling older women.

SETTING:  A community of older residents in Cache County, Utah.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2338 nondemented women aged 65 and older.

MEASUREMENTS:

All subjects were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE). Self-reported information on current and past use of estrogen after menopause was also obtained using a structured interview. Estrogen use was trichotomized as: no use, past use, and current use. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was determined and was dichotomized by the presence of an epsilon4 allele. A series of variance/covariance models was conducted with the 3MSE score as the dependent variable, first considering estrogen use alone, then adding, sequentially as covariates, education, age, health status, APOE genotype, current depression status, and history of head injury.

RESULTS:

In the simplest bivariate model, the 3MSE means (and confidence intervals) were 92.1 (91.7-92.4), 93.5 (93.1-93.9), and 94.4 (94.0-94.7) for never-, past-, and current users, respectively. In the final model (R2 = 0.28), no use of estrogen replacement therapy (P = .006), lower education (P < .001), poorer perceived health status (P = .035), current depression (P = .014), and presence of at least one APOE epsilon4 allele (P < .001) each independently predicted lower 3MSE score. Both current and past estrogen users had significantly higher 3MSE scores than never-users (P = .0063 and P = .0096, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large community study, women who had used estrogen after menopause scored higher on the 3MSE. This finding remained, even after controlling for the effects of age, education, APOE genotype, and other variables that may affect cognition. These data support studies reporting a beneficial role of estrogen on cognition in postmenopausal women, particularly among current estrogen users.

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Oestrogen replacement and cognitive functionOriginal Research Article
Reviews in Gynaecological Practice,
 Volume 1, Issue 2, Summer 2001, Pages 100-107 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811901908870

Abstract

Oestrogen exerts its influences on almost all systems of the human body including the brain. Recent brain scanning studies have shown that oestrogen has a fundamental influence on the brain organisation patterns in post menopausal women and profound effects oncognitive function, especially with regard to short term or working memory and visual memory.  There is increasing evidence that oestrogen may prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease and improve aspects of social and physical function in elderly women. These are of importance especially with the demographic changes in ageing.  Oestrogen appears to potentiate the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors used in treating Alzheimer's.

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Neurology May 1, 1997 vol. 48 no. 5 Suppl 7 21S-26S  http://www.neurology.org/content/48/5_Suppl_7/21S.short

Estrogen effects on cognition in menopausal women

ABSTRACT

Article abstract-There is now considerable evidence from basic neuroscience that estrogen influences aspects of brain chemistry and brain morphology known to be important for memory functions. Prospective, controlled studies of surgically and naturally menopausal women demonstrated that exogenous estrogen enhanced short- and long-term memory and the capacity for learning new associations, whereas visual memory was unaffected. Healthy, 65-year-old women who took estrogen also performed significantly better than estrogen-nonusers who were matched for age, socioeconomic status, and years of formal education. Finally, in 32-year-old women with uterine myomas, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) resulted both in ovarian suppression and in a decrease in verbal memory which was reversed by addition of estrogen to the GnRH-a treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that estrogen helps to maintain verbal memory and enhances the capacity for new learning in women, whereas other cognitive functions such as verbal memory are seemingly unaffected by this steroid hormone.

NEUROLOGY 1997;48(Suppl 7): S21-S26

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Neuronal and Cognitive Effects of Oestrogens: Novartis Foundation Symposium 230

Oestrogen and Cognitive Function Throughout the Female Lifespan

Published Online: 29 APR 2008 DOI: 10.1002/0470870818.ch14    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/0470870818.ch14/summary

Summary

Evidence that oestrogen helps to maintain verbal memory in women comes from several sources. Studies that have tested cognitive functioning at different phases of the menstrual cycle have found few differences, perhaps because oestrogen levels are sufficiently high, albeit variable, during all cycle phases. Experimental studies in postmenopausal women have generally found a protective effect of oestrogen, specifically on verbal memory. Results of several large, longitudinal studies that have become available recently have also demonstrated that women who were oestrogen users performed better on certain tests of cognitive function than non-users of similar age. On the basis of this body of evidence, it is possible to conclude that oestrogen may attenuate or prevent the decline in aspects of memory that occur with normal ageing in women.

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Estrogen replacement therapy and longitudinal decline in visual memory    A possible protective effect?

Neurology December 1, 1997 vol. 49 no. 6 1491-1497  http://www.neurology.org/content/49/6/1491.short

ABSTRACT

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is increasingly recommended for postmenopausal women due to its beneficial effects on physical health in older women. Recent studies have suggested that ERT may have a protective effect on cognitive function and may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we test the hypothesis that ERT may have a protective effect on memory in nondemented women. Data on hormonal status and memory were examined in 288 postmenopausal women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. One hundred sixteen women who reported that they were receiving ERT during a cognitive assessment were compared with 172 women who had never received ERT. Women who were receiving ERT had fewer errors on the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), a measure of short-term visual memory, visual perception, and constructional skills. Furthermore, ERT appeared to protect against age changes in BVRT performance in a subgroup of 18 women for whom BVRT data were available before and during treatment with ERT. These findings suggest that ERT may protect against memory decline in nondemented postmenopausal women and offer further support for a beneficial role of estrogen on cognitive function in aging women.

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