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Mitochondria as source of ROS    April 2013  Tiago R. Figueria, Mario H. Barros, et al

Mitochondria as a Source of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: From Molecular Mechanisms to Human Health


Mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species are involved in a myriad of signaling and damaging pathways in different tissues. In addition, mitochondria are an important target of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we discuss basic mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidant generation and removal and the main factors affecting mitochondrial redox balance. We also discuss the interaction between mitochondrial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and the involvement of these oxidants in mitochondrial diseases, cancer, neurological, and cardiovascular disorders


Julio F. Turrens, July 2004

Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species


The reduction of oxygen to water proceeds via one electron at a time. In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase) retains all partially reduced intermediates until full reduction is achieved. Other redox centres in the electron transport chain, however, may leak electrons to oxygen, partially reducing this molecule to superoxide anion (O2•). Even though O2• is not a strong oxidant, it is a precursor of most other reactive oxygen species, and it also becomes involved in the propagation of oxidative chain reactions. Despite the presence of various antioxidant defences, the mitochondrion appears to be the main intracellular source of these oxidants. This review describes the main mitochondrial sources of reactive species and the antioxidant defences that evolved to prevent oxidative damage in all the mitochondrial compartments. We also discuss various physiological and pathological scenarios resulting from an increased steady state concentration of mitochondrial oxidants.

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Dr. Relman another former editor in chief of the NEJM said this in 2002
“The medical profession is being bought by the pharmaceutical industry, not only in terms of the practice of medicine, but also in terms of teaching and research. The academic institutions of this country are allowing themselves to be the paid agents of the pharmaceutical industry. I think it’s disgraceful”