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Aspirin, various benefits

Recent findings: 

1) that taking 2 or more 325 mg of aspirin reduce colon cancer risk 70%


2).  VIOXX was tested along with naproxen to see if it too reduced the risk of dementia like aspirin.  Since the population was elderly and the test ran for 2 years before being halted because of adverse effects (MI and strokes), this exposed the health risks of taking a COX2 inhibitor.  It use was withdrawn in Sept. of 04. 


3)  Mayo clinic study proves that aspirin prior to a by-pass operation improves outcome 260% lower (2005).  The sequel is that the two standard blood clot reducing drugs (kallikrein inhibitors aprotinin and aminocaproic acid) actual very substantially increased mortality—2 studies published by New England Journal of Medicine in 2008 revealed.  Estimated 22,000 deaths in less than 2 years.

Pregnancy Complications

Pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation, both caused by blockages of the blood vessels of the placenta, are two of the commonest complications of pregnancy – there are 50,000 cases of pre-eclampsia in Britain a year. In a trial involving more than 9000 women in 16 countries, a daily dose of 60mg aspirin reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia by 13 per cent. Earlier research suggested that the benefits were even greater.

Cancer Reduction:   Pancreatic 53%,  colorectal 50%, lung 33%

The results are even more significant when it is done for those taking aspirin daily for 10 or more years.  A large number of people are on daily aspirin either because they are in the high-risk coronary group or for arthritis.  Since cancer results from the slow accumulation of cellular changes over many years, a drug which slows the accumulation of changes would be more significant in preventing cancer when taken over a longer time-frame.--jk

Evidence is mounting that regular aspirin usage may reduce the risk of many of today's commonest cancers. First indications of this were in colon cancer. In a long term study of 90,000 US nurses between 1976 and 1995 those who took 4-6 tablets of aspirin per week had a greatly reduced incidence of colorectal cancer compared with nurses who did not take aspirin. The longer the nurses had been taking aspirin the greater the protection they gained.

More recently, a study involving 14,000 women has shown that those who had reported using aspirin 3 or more times per week for at least 6 months were one third less likely to develop lung cancer compared with women who had taken no aspirin. The risk reduction was even greater for non-small cell lung cancer.

Also recently published is a study of the effect of aspirin usage in pancreatic cancer incidence in 28,000 post-menopausal women. In those individuals who took aspirin 2-5 times per week, the risk of developing pancreatic cancer was 53% lower than in those women who had never taken aspirin. The more often the women took aspirin, the lower their risk of cancer.

What dose of aspirin to use, how frequently to use it and even exactly how it works are still unknown but more work is being done to clarify these issues. What is clear from the accumulating evidence is that regular use of aspirin really does seem to reduce the risk of a growing range of the commonest and most serious cancers.


Blindness, coronary artery disease, stroke and kidney failure are all common complications of diabetes resulting from impaired blood circulation. The benefits of taking one aspirin a day are now so widely accepted that it is considered unethical to perform placebo controlled trials to prove the case.

Dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease)

Some forms of dementia affects about one in four people aged 70 years or above. There is some evidence that aspirin may help prevent both the condition resulting from impaired blood flow and the most serious form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease. The latter is believed to be an inflammatory condition similar to arthritis.

Aspirin is a highly effective anti-inflammatory drug and a preliminary study found a lower than expected incidence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who frequently have to take aspirin over a prolonged period. An important trial in South Wales is following the fortunes of 400 men and studying the factors (including aspirin consumption) that may determine the incidence of dementia. However, volunteers are still being signed up for the trial and conclusive results will not be ready for some time.


New Study Reveals Aspirin’s benefits for Prostate Cancer Patients

Aspirin may increase prostate cancer survival
Source: (
Monday, October 04, 2004

ATLANTA – Oct. 4, 2004 – Men with prostate cancer might survive longer by regularly taking aspirin, a new study suggests.

While there have been other studies showing regular use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) seems to reduce the risk of developing various cancers, including prostate cancer, this is one of the first to suggest that such drugs may help men with prostate cancer live longer.

The study led by Dr. K Khanh H. Nguyen, a radiation oncologist at Fox Chase Cancer Center was presented today at the 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO).

"Pretreatment NSAID use was associated with significant delays in distant metastases, decreased rates of second cancers and improvement in overall survival," lead author Nguyen said in a news release. "Our data suggest a potential benefit of NSAIDs in managing prostate cancer."

The Fox Chase study involved 1,206 men who had definitive radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. The researchers compared long-term treatment outcomes of 232 patients who had used NSAIDs regularly before treatment with the outcomes of the 974 men with no history of regular NSAID use. Other characteristics, such as smoking, were balanced between the two groups. The follow-up period averaged more than four and a half years.

After taking into account other variables such as age, Gleason score and radiation dose, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs remained a predictor for improved overall survival.

Laboratory studies have suggested that by inhibiting the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, NSAIDs may enhance programmed cell death (apoptosis) and inhibit the development of blood vessels (angiogenesis) that feed a tumor. The Fox Chase researchers concluded that inhibiting these COX enzymes holds promise in prostate cancer treatment and warrants further studies.

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New Study Quantifies Coronary Benefits of Aspirin

An Update on Aspirin in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease


Rachel Eidelman, Patricia Herbert, Steven Weisman, & Charles Hennekens, from Arch Intern Med, vol. 163, Sept. 22, 2003.


A meta-study using 5 published trials from 1988 to present, totaling 55,580 randomized participants.



Among the 55,580 randomized participans (11,466 women) aspirin was associated with a statistically signficiant 32% reduction in the risk of a first MI and a significant 15% reduction in the risk of all important vascular events, but hand no significant effects on non-fatal stroke or vascular death. 





Neurology, 2002;59:880-886


Method:  In 1995 to 1996 elderly (age 65+) county residents were assessed for dementia, with current and former use of NSAID, aspirin, and H2RA as well as three other “control” medication classes also noted.  Three years later, interval medication histories were obtained and 104 participants with incident AD were identified among the 3,227 living participants. 


Results:  By contrast, former NSAID users showed substantially reduced incidence (estimated hazard ration = 42), with a trend towards greatest risk reduction among those with extended exposure.  Similar patterns appreared with aspirin but not with any other medicines. 


Carefully controlled study show that all class of non-aspirin NSAIDs cause increased risk of myocardial infraction. 



ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE,  Vol. 165 No. 9. May 9, 2005


Risk of Hospitalization for Myocardial Infarction Among Users of Rofecoxib, Celecoxib, and Other NSAIDs

A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Søren P. Johnsen, MD, PhD; Heidi Larsson, MSc; Robert E. Tarone, PhD; Joseph K. McLaughlin, PhD; Bente Nørgård, MD, PhD; Søren Friis, MD; Henrik T. Sørensen, DMSc

Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:978-984.

Background  It remains uncertain if the excess cardiovascular risk of rofecoxib and celecoxib reported in clinical trials is present in routine practice and whether the use of other nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) also carries an increased cardiovascular risk. We performed a population-based case-control study to examine the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among users of various categories of nonaspirin NSAIDs.

Methods  Using data from hospital discharge registries in the counties of North Jutland, Viborg, and Aarhus, Denmark, and the Danish Civil Registration System, we identified 10 280 cases of first-time hospitalization for MI and 102 797 sex- and age-matched non-MI population controls. All prescriptions for nonaspirin NSAIDs filled before the date of admission for MI were identified using population-based prescription databases. Relative risk estimates for MI were adjusted for a history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and the use of high-dose aspirin, platelet inhibitors, insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, oral anticoagulants, nitrates, penicillamine, gold, oral glucocorticocoids, and hormone therapy before the date of admission for MI.

Results  Current users of rofecoxib had an elevated risk estimate for hospitalization for MI compared with nonusers of any category of nonaspirin NSAIDs (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.21). Increased risk estimates were also found among current users of celecoxib (ARR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.97-1.62), other cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (ARR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93), naproxen (ARR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.99-2.29), and other conventional non-aspirin NSAIDs (ARR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.52-1.85). The highest ARRs were found among new users of all examined drug categories.

Conclusions  Current and new users of all classes of non-aspirin NSAIDs had elevated relative risk estimates for MI. Although the increased risk estimates may partly reflect unmeasured bias, they indicate the need for further examination of the cardiovascular safety of all non-aspirin NSAIDs.

Author Affiliations: Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark (Drs Johnsen, Nørgård, and Sørensen and Ms Larsson); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark (Dr Johnsen); International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, Md (Drs Tarone and McLaughlin); Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tenn (Drs Tarone and McLaughlin); and Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (Dr Friis).



76% reduction found in Italian study

Estrogen-replacement therapy and Alzheimer's disease in the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging

M Baldereschi, A Di Carlo, V Lepore, L Bracco, S Maggi, F Grigoletto, G Scarlato and L Amaducci
Progetto Finalizzato Invecchiamento, Italian National Research Council, Rome.

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of estrogen-replacement therapy and other estrogen-related variables with Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women. BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal estrogen use has been reported to lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: A population- based, multicenter survey was carried out in eight Italian municipalities. The sample of 2,816 women, aged 65 to 84 years, was randomly selected from the population register of each municipality and stratified in 5-year age groups. All women were screened using the Mini- Mental State Examination and interviewed concerning risk factors. Those who screened positive underwent a clinical assessment. Dementia syndrome was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria, and Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for possible and probable Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of postmenopausal estrogen use adjusted to the 1991 Italian female population was 12.3%. The frequency of estrogen use was higher among nonpatients compared with Alzheimer's disease patients (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.77). The inverse association between estrogen therapy and Alzheimer's disease remained significant after adjustment for age, education, age at menarche, age at menopause, smoking and alcohol habits, body weight at the age of 50 years, and number of children (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.08 to 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Our data from a population-based study support the hypothesis that estrogen-replacement therapy is associated with a reduced prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women. Prospective clinical trials are required to enable women and their physicians to weigh risks and benefits of estrogen-replacement therapy for the prevention of dementia.



Disclaimer:  The information, facts, and opinions provided here is not a substitute for professional advice.  It only indicates what JK believes, does, or would do.  Always consult your primary care physician for any medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment.