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Terms used in dietary articles

Terms used in dietary articles  -- 7/23/17  http://healthfully.org/rh/id6.html

Abdominal fat: see visceral fat.

Acetyl-CoA (Acetyl coenzyme A):  its main function to convey carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the Krebs (citric acid) cycle to be oxidized.  It also plays an essential role in the metabolism of glucose, degradation of fatty acids, and the metabolism of amino acids.   It also is one of two components of the common neural transmitter acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia. 

Adenosine triphosphate, see ATP

Adiponectin is one of the five hormones produced by adipose tissue.  Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice.  It has many effects including increase glucose uptake, decrease gluconeogenesis, lipid catabolism, insulin sensitivity, etc. 

Adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.  Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids.  If insulin is elevated there is a net inward flux of lipids (FFA), and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming carbohydrates.  It produces hormones such as leptinestrogenresistin, and the cytokine TNFα. 

Adipocytes (lipocytes) fat cells are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue.  They specialize in storing fat as energy.  There are three types, white, beige, and brown.  The white cells secrete many proteins such as such as resistinadiponectinleptin and Apelin.   An average adult has 30 lbs. of white cells.  The less common brown cells have a large quantity of mitochondria which make them brown.  Their mitochondria produce ATP.

Adkins diet (New Adkins diet ), the most popular low carb diet, which consists of 4 phases, the first two weeks is extremely low carbs (induction phase), followed by a “weight loss phase”, and once weight goal is obtained a “pre-maintenance phase” where carb level is increased until weight is stabilized in which it then becomes the “lifetime maintenance phase”. 

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) the end products of a reaction in which a monosaccharide bonds to a protein molecule—fructose being the most reactive common sugar.  AGEs are implicated in many chronic diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetes and heart disease.    

Alanine aminotransferase, ALT, measured in a blood tells and used as an indication of liver function—sensitive to the amount of fat in the liver—see fatty liver disease. 

Amino acid:  biologically important organic compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH)  functional groups, and are essential nutrients. The key elements of an amino acid are carbonhydrogenoxygen, and nitrogen.  There are 21 common amino acids; they are the building blocks of proteins, peptides and polypeptides. 

Anaerobic process:  one which occurs without the presence of oxygen

Aerobic process:  one which occurs in the presence of oxygen


Atheroma is an accumulation of degenerative material in the tunica intima(inner layer) of artery walls. The material consists of (mostly) macrophage cells,[1][2] or debris, containing lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.  It is a type of puss from the underlying infection within the artery wall—a thing pharma doesn’t treat.   

Atherosclerosis (AS) (arteriosclerosis):  results from a thicken of the artery walls as a result of the accumulation of the debris from the complex immune system response white blood cells to pathogens colonizing the arteries tunica media (see macrophage and LDL).  It is the primary cause of hypertension and ischemic events.  See cholesterol myth for what it isn’t.   The Western high carb diet with polyunsaturated and trans-fats is a major cause of atherosclerosis.  

ATP, Adenosine triphosphate, the body’s energy molecule:   is a nucleoside triphosphate that transports chemical energy created through metabolism in the mitochondria and used to power over 90% of the body’s chemical reactions, such as those which permit muscle contractions and the synthesis of compounds.  ATP goes from a high state of energy to a low state.  The main way ATP goes back to the high state of energy is through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates or fats in the mitochondria, where ATP is restored to three phosphate groups (PO4).  GTP & NADP also function as energy molecules.

Bariatric Surgery (weight loss surgery):  any of a variety of procedures that reduce the size of the stomach or the absorption of food by constructing a gastric bypass of the duodenum section of the small intestines.  Such surgery through fasting and low carbohydrate diet in the first month cures over 90% of cases cures type-2 diabetes. 

Beta hydroxybutyrate/butyric acid, synthesized from acetoacetate which is derived from fats in their metabolic breakdown to produce ATP.  It has biological functions in the brain that lower risk of dementia & Parkinson’s disease through up regulating BDNF, and has other benefits.  Best source coconut oil because of its short chain saturated fats

Beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes to liberate 2-carbon units, acetyl-CoA, or 3-carbon propionyl-CoA.  They condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle.to produce ATP.

Bliss point:  the combination of ingredients in manufactured foods that through taste maximizes sales.  The bliss point relies heavily upon the use of sugar, fat, and salt, of which sugar is the most important added ingredient.

Body Mass index (BMI) is a measurement of relative weight based on an individual’s mass and height, devised by Adolphe Queteiet of Belgian around 1840.  BMI = (mass (lb.)/(height(in))2)/703.07.  Normal is 18.5-25; overweight 25-30, and obese >30 with morbidly obese >40.  Obesity is approximately 25% above lean body weight. 

Bolus, in pharmacology and veterinary medicine around mass of medicinal material larger than an ordinary pill.  A 75 g of glucose bolus is used in the glucose tolerance test—see glycated hemoglobin.  

Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), BDNF is a member of the nerotrophin family of growth factors related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor.  BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system , helping to support the survival of existing neurons and encourage the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.  It is important for long-term memory.  Stimulation of this factor is increased through exercise, enhanced cognitive processes, as does a ketogenic diet and fasting through beta hydroxybutyrate.

Calorie (food) is the heat needed to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade in a calorimeter.  These numbers have been adjusted to somewhat reflect the potential energy from metabolism, thus there has been changes in the values compared to older tables.  Currently fiber is 2 calories per gram, carbohydrate at 4, protein 4, ethanol 7, and fat as 9. 

Carbohydrate (carb) a biological molecule consisting of a poly-hydrated ketone or aldehyde with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and a formula of ­C­m(H2 O)n (with a few exceptions); in biochemistry a saccharide.  Common ones are the starches, sugars, and fibers which are starches that resist the digestive process.  Carbs and fats are the main sources used by the mitochondria in the production of ATP.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a condition involving atherosclerotic coronary arties.  It causes ischemic heart disease, ischemic events, and angina pectoris.  Often the term CVD is used interchangeable with coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). 

Cholesterol, a waxy sterol that is an essential component of cell walls especially in neurons, thus essential for new cells. It is used in the production of sex hormones, digestive bile, cortisol, and much more.  The main blood serum source is from synthesis in the liver (+70%)—not diet.  Cholesterol does not cause atherosclerosis but pharma claims it does.  It is in plaque because of the healing process producing new cells.  Cholesterol content in plaque ranges from 7 to 22%. Low cholesterol is associated with a higher death rate, while higher with longevity—see definitive Framingham Study.

Cholesterol myth:  a belief promoted by pharma and their “experts” (KOLs) that elevated cholesterol is a major causal factor for CVD.  Basic research has however shown the main cause is pathogens that colonize the muscular walls of arteries.  The serum level of cholesterol is not associated with CVD and ischemic events; though pharma claims it is and treats high cholesterol with drugs, though this doesn’t prevent ischemic events, though they claim it does.  Numerous critics have pointed this out; nevertheless, half of all senior take a statin which clearly lowers that quality of life and increase the rate of mortality from MI by lowering the amount of ATP in muscles including the hear.  ATP is what muscles use to causes contraction.   Thus statins weaken the heart muscle make it prone to heart failure and death.      

Chylomicron is a lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85-92%) and phospholipids (6-12%).  They transport dietary lipids from the intestines and are one of the 5 major lipoprotein groups.  When the triqacylglycerol core has been hydrolyzed its remants are formed and are taken up by the liver.

Citric acid cycle see Krebs cycle.

Corn syrup (glucose syrup, dextrose syrup):  syrup made from maize or corn starch; pure glucose with some maltose and higher oligosaccharides depending on grade.  Prepared by adding alpha-amylase to corn starch and water, and then glucoamylase.  It is distinguished from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) which is corn syrup in which about half of the glucose is converted to fructose by an enzymatic process.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) also known as atherosclerotic heart diseaseatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseasecoronary heart disease, or ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the most common type of heart disease and cause of heart attacks.  The disease is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the arteries of the heart, which narrows the lumen of arteries and reduces blood flow to the heart.

Cytoplasm:  comprises cytosol (intercellular fluid) a gel like substance enclosed within a cell membrane fluid that fills the inner spaces of eukaryote organisms.  The organelles such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum are contained in the cytoplasm.  This fluid in the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. Protoplasm is both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. 

Cytosol (cytoplasmic matrix):  the water soluble components of cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains   after removal of the organelles and otherintracellular structures.  In this plasma occurs protein biosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathwayglycolysis (see below), anaerobic metabolism, and gluconeogenesis.  Note, the cytoplasm is the cytosol plus the organelles. 

Dextrose (grape sugar, dextroglucose) is the dextro-rotarory isomer of glucose, occurs widely in fruit, honey, and blood of animals.  The most common form of glucose. 

Diabetes type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (T2D, T2DM, NIDDM) a chronic metabolic disorder in which cells become resistant to the glucose regulatory function of insulin, and thus results in high serum glucose level.  In response the pancreas produces more glucose but not enough to lower adequately glucose.  When symptomatic it is treated by drugs such as metformin.  Often years later the level of insulin production by the pancreas declines and insulin is added to lower serum glucose.

Diabetes type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes (T1D, T1DM) results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas—accounts for 5% of diabetes cases.

Diabetes type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (T2D, T2DM, NIDDM) a chronic metabolic disorder in which cells become resistant to the glucose regulatory function of insulin, and thus results in high serum glucose level.  In response the pancreas produces more glucose but not enough to lower adequately glucose.  When symptomatic it is treated by drugs such as metformin.  Often years later the level of insulin production by the pancreas declines and insulin is added to lower serum glucose.

Dyslipidemia, high level serum free fatty acids

Endothelial cells (cells of the endothelium): is the thin layer of simple squamous cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.  Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.

Endothelial dysfunction,. Normal functions of endothelial cells include mediation of coagulation, platelet adhesion, immune function and control of volume and electrolyte content of the intravascular and extravascular spaces.  Most significant is the inflammation within the tunica media that produces atheromas.  Like a pimple with puss, the atheroma can leak its contents.  Once mature and harden though constricting blood flow, it rarely leaks.  However, pharma treats the constriction with drugs that modify neural-transmitter functions. 

Epithelial cells (of the epithelium):   is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs  through- out the body.  There are three principal shapes of epithelial cells —squamous, columnar and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells, or layers of two or more cells.

Endothelium, the thin layer of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels.  Normal functions include mediation of coagulation platelet adhesion.

Estrogen, one of the 4 female human hormones with a structure similar to testosterone, but often refers to estradiol (E2), the most bioactive of the group.  There are estrogen receptors on cells throughout the body.  They regulate the menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles, and are involved in the regulation of fat storage, metabolism, bone remodeling, coagulation of blood, salt retention, libido, vaginal lubrication, melanin production, increases collagen in the skin, cortisol levels, and development of secondary sexual characteristics.  The estradiol drives buttock fat storage, and falling menopause fat is typically preferentially stored abdominally, which results in the unhealthy visceral fat.   

Fat (fatty acid) free fatty acids (FFA):  a subset of lipids with a chain of carbon atoms filled with hydrogen, and on last carbon has the organic acid group--thus is also called “fatty acid”.  The fatty acids are commonly joined in groups of three through a glycerol molecule to form a triglyceride for storage. 

Fatty Acid Metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).  They are the main energy storage form for vertebrates..  When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by β-oxidation and the citric acid cycle [Krebs].  Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus)

Fermentation (lactic acid fermentation,) is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process which turns pyruvate from glycolysis into lactic acid.  The process takes place in the cytosol and produces about 1/15th the ATP of anaerobic metabolism.

Fiber:  dietary fiber is the component in food not broken down by digestive enzymes and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the fiber is broken down by intestinal bacteria and a small portion is gradually absorbed through intestinal walls.  This fiber includes hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, cellulose, (all carbohydrates), and lignin, the only non-carbohydrate component of dietary fiber.  Because of the slow absorption fiber does not cause an insulin spike, and like proteins and fats delays stomach clearance and thus  lowers the insulin spike following a meal.

Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide found in fruits.  Main sources are the disaccharide sucrose, fruits, and high fructose corn syrup.  It is metabolized in the liver into either glucose or fat.  A high-carb diet causes the fat from fructose to be stored in the in the liver.  Over years this can develop into IR and NAFLD.  Also fructose is 7.5 more reactive then glucose, and it is cleared at about half the rate from the blood than glucose.  Through the process of glycation fructose damages the liver and causes our chronic age-related diseases.  Like galactose, fructose is a 5-carbon ring--glucose is 6.

Hydrogenation of vegetable oil:  the process whereby hydrogen is attached to a fat at the point of a double bond in the chain of carbon atoms making up the fat.  This process while improving the commercial usefulness of vegetable oils (taste and shelf life), creates the unnatural, unhealthy trans-fats.

Galactose one of the two sugars in the disaccharide lactose, the other is glucose.  It is a reactive 5 ring sugar like fructose, both of which are 7 times more reactive than glucose, a 6 carbon ring.

Ghrelin (hunger hormone, lenomorelin, INN):  hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal track which function as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system, and it plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.  Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward perception in   dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens[7] (a site that plays a role in processing sexual desire, reward, and reinforcement, and in developing addictions) through its colocalized receptors and interaction with dopamine and acetylcholine.  It also goes to the same receptors as leptin, the satiety hormone.

Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, that raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.[1] The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low.  Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into stored   glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. 

Glucose tolerance test consists of giving a fasting patient 75 g of glucose and then measuring plasma glucose ever 15 or 30 minutes for 2 hours.  The level of plasma glucose if at 2 hours is above 7.8 he is consider to be insulin resistant (impaired glucose tolerance) and above 11.1 as diabetic; though a better test than HBAc1, literature states it as inferior.

Glucose a monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in animals it is stored as long chain called glycogen.  Glucose is as one half of the disaccharide sucrose, and is also obtained from the hydrolysis of starches which are long chains of glucose molecules.  Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.

Glucoside is a derivative of glucose.  Glucosides are common in plants, but rare in animals.

Glycated hemoglobin (HbAc1) measures the amount of blood sugars over a period of about 20 days, and thus is considered a better measurement.  However, given that rate of glycation of fructose is 15 times that of glucose, this test fails to exclude those whose diet is high in fructose from those whose elevated reading is because of glucose.   (Fructose is cleared from the blood following a soda at haft the rate of glucose.)

Glycation:  a process where a monosaccharide randomly attaches to proteins and thereby adversely affects the proteins’ functions.  Fructose is by far the most reactive common sugar. 

Glycemic Index see paragraph at bottom of this section

Glycemic Load see paragraph at bottom of this section

Glycerol (blycerine):  a sugar alcohol consisting of a chain of 3 carbons each with an alcohol group attached.  It forms the bridge to which 3 fatty acids attach to form a triglyceride. 

Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. It is analogous to starch.  The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.  A 150 lb. person stores at most 3 lbs. of glycogen—amount is dependent upon physical conditioning.  It is hydrated with 3 to 4 parts water, thus making too bulky for mass energy storage.  The main storage area is the liver which has 100 to 120 g of glycogen.  In the muscles up to 2% by weight is glycogen, where it functions as an immediate reserve source for glucose.  Insulin stimulates the production of glycogen.   

Glycolysis:  the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid—an anaerobic process that only produces 2 ATP compared to the ~29 produced in the Krebs cycle.

Hepatocytes:  a liver cell.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL):  is the largest by size of the five major groups of lipoproteins and constitutes about 30% of the blood cholesterol (see LDL for composition).  It functions to remove fats and cholesterol from cells including with the atheroma in artery walls and transport it back to the liver for utilization.  It is called the good cholesterol because it is supposed to lower the risk of CVD—see cholesterol myth.  

High fructose corn syrup, HFCS, fructose-glucose syrup:  corn (nearly pure glucose) syrup that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose.   HFCS consists of 24% water, and most commonly 55% fructose and 42% glucose (HFCS 55).  It is used as a replacement for sugar because of its much lower price. 

Homeostasis:  state of body equilibrium, maintenance of a stable internal environment in a body. 

Hormones:  steroidal or amino acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.

Incretin: class of hormones secreted by the stomach and intestines which case insulin secretion and satiety.

Insulin is the main blood glucose regulatory hormone produced by the pancreas.  It causes tissues to absorb and burn glucose and also to store fat (not burn).    High blood insulin is caused by the Western diet which is high in carbs and thus low in fat.  This has caused long-term high levels of insulin, and thus the obesity and diabetes pandemics.  Blood glucose and to a much lesser extent the amino acids arginine and leucine stimulate the production and release of insulin.  Insulin also inhibits the product of glucose by the liver from fructose and controls fat storage and glucose metabolism and affects hunger through regulation of the hormone leptin and ghrelin.  Blood glucose, amino acids arginine and leucine, and various digestive system derived hormones stimulate the production and release of insulin. Low insulin results in the medical condition type-1 diabetes.   Higher than normal blood insulin per unit of glucose indicates insulin resistance. 

Insulin Index a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods.  The Insulin Index is based on the consumption of 1,000kJ (kilo joules) of the given food.  White bread is rated at 100.  See bottom section

Insulin like growth factor (IGF-1 and IGF-2)), two related hormones similar in structure to insulin.  IGF-1 stimulates cell growth-tissue growth.  Growth hormone (GH) stimulates production.  IGF-2 functions to regulate the action of IGF-1. 

Insulin resistance (IR) the condition in which cells have reduced response to hormone insulin, and this results in a high blood glucose level.  IR first occurs in the liver, then depending upon diet it can also develop in the muscles and adipose (fat) cells.  The pancreas produces more insulin in response to the elevated glucose.  The accumulation of fat in the pancreas like that in the liver will eventually result in organ issues; for the pancreas, the beta cells will through accumulation of fat and an immune response, reduce their production of insulin.   This results in type-2 diabetes.

Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL):  One of the five major groups of lipoprotein particles that enables fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.  Their size is from 25 to 35 nm in diameter, and are In density between LDL and VDL. 

Ischemic event, acute ischemic event:  acute event causing cell death due to the sudden lack of blood supply and thus oxygen; commonly used to indicate a heart attack or stroke.   

Ketone bodies: are water-soluble molecules derived from fatty acids, There are 3 natural ones:  acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid; the third is acetone.  Ketones bodies are picked up by cells and converted into acetyl-CoA.    

Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, very low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children and to starve cancer.  The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates Carbohydrates are limited to 20 grams per day—some KDs go higher.

Ketosis is a metabolic process in which most of the body’s energy supply (ATP) comes from ketone bodies; an alternate to glycolysis where glucose provides most of the energy. 

Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs):  leading researchers, administrators, or spokespersons within a specialty of medicine, who are--with rare exception--beholding to the financial support given by pharma and reciprocate by presenting pharma’s tobacco science and providing other services. 

Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TGA)):  is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydratesfats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions.

Lactose (milk sugar): the disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose.

Leptin is the satiety hormone which stimulates the brain’s hunger center to suppress appetite, while ghrelin has the opposite effect.  Leptin is produced by fat cells.  Leptin also regulates metabolism. When on an energy restricted diet (except fasting or very low-carb diet) there is a 20% reduction in metabolism, and through Ghrelin an increase in appetite.  Fat cells through leptin function to maintain their fat store, which it is why energy restricted diets don’t work long-term.  Leptin level increase during the night and during fasting, and thus suppresses hunger.   

Leptin resistance occurs when the cells under-respond to hunger.  High leptin increase hunger and storing of fat.    

Lipid: has two meaning: 1) a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fatswaxessterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglyceridesdiglycerides, triglyceridesphospholipids, and others that are water insoluble and have a greasy appearance and feel to touch. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and are the chief structural components of cell membranes.  2) The term often is also used to mean “fats”, such as in journal articles describing the peroxidation of lipids, which are on polyunsaturated fats.

Lipoprotein refers to  both the protein rap around a large molecular structure consisting of mainly water (blood) insoluble triglycerides and cholesterol, but also contain other molecules including the antioxidants vitamin C and E.  They are created in the liver and are involved in transport and deposition of contents according to site needs, of which build of new tissue is most common.  They are divided into subcategories by size and density.   

Low density lipoprotein (LDL): A spherical particle consisting of 3-6 thousand particles (over 1,000 triglycerides and phospholipids, and  1,000 cholesterol molecules raped within a single apolipoprotein B-100 molecule of 4,356 amino acids along with 80 to 100 ancillary proteins.  They are made in the liver for blood transport to cells in need of cholesterol and fatty acids.  They also have an immune function in which toxins and reactive chemical attach to LDL—a thing KOLs and their textbooks ignore for the promotion of drug sales, but basic published research support.

Macrophage large white cells that function as scavenger in the removal of debris and also the removal of foreign invaders such as fungus and bacteria; they also promote healing from infections. 

Metabolism in reference to diet, refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat & carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP by the mitochondria.  Under conditions of starvation proteins also can be used as a source of ATP.  In the second meaning, there are three main purposes of metabolism:  the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.

Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, type-2 diabetes, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.   Though a metabolic imbalance pharma includes non-metabolic conditions such high lipid-cholesterol and hypertension.

Micronutrients:  are nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions.[1] For people, they include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams/day, as opposed to macronutrients.   

Mitochondria s a membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.  These structures are sometimes described as "the powerhouse of the cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.  The number varies, for instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000.  Because of the reactive chemical produced in the production of ATP, they are enclosed to prevent seepage.  They have their own DNA with 36 genes that are passed down by the mother.  Their decline with age is responsible for the diminished capacity for physical excursion. 

Modus operandi, method of action, the causal explanation involving the involved mechanism. 

Monounsaturated oils: a fatty acids with one double bond in the carbon chain that is not nearly as prone to oxidation as polyunsaturated fats, but more so than saturated fats.  Dietary rich sources Coconut, Palm Kernel, and Olive oils.

Morbidity is a disease state, disability, or poor health due to any cause. 

Myocardial Infarction (MI): a heart attack that occurs when the blood that nourishes the heart muscle is cut off due to the leaking of unstable plaque which is often further occluded by a blood clot.  The resulting ischemia event damages the heart muscle.  Myocardium, the muscular substance of the heart.

Myocytes (muscle cells/fiber):  are long tubular cells that develop from the myoblast to form muscles.

Neuropathy:  is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication  e.g., chemotherapy, traumatic injury, radiation therapy, neuroleptic drugs, polypharmacy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease or viral infection. 

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease the accumulation of fat by hepatocytes sufficient to significantly adversely affect various liver functions.  The NHANES survey 2011 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population and 75% of those obese--a lower percentages for Europe.  Diagnosed by ultrasound, steatosis is suspect when any of the following are present:  obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, visceral fat, and elevated liver enzymes.  The causal pathway is accumulation of fat in the liver from the conversion of fructose to fat in the liver, and stored that due to a high carb diet.  Once established diet and life style changes seldom reverse the condition, while bariatric surgery and fast are often curative.  

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH):  is the extreme form of NAFLD and is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver in non-alcoholics. It is a type of liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver. Over a 10-year period up to 20% of patients with NASH will develop cirrhosis of the liver, and 10% will die from related liver diseases.  The process starts with insulin resistance.

Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow. Macronutrients are nutrients ruired in small amount: they provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out.

Nucleus accumbens (NA), accumbens nucleus is a region in the basal forebrain.  It has a significant role in the cognitive processing of motivation, pleasure, reward, and operant conditioning (learning).  The brain center involving addiction.

Organic (USDA):  a deceptive label of foods meaning little.  The outsourcing of the inspection process and the failure of the USDA to do testing entails another sham regulatory process.  

Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a moleculeatom, or ion and thereby increase the valance. (see redox).  Confusion is created because this term is also commonly used to refer to one specific reaction, that of combining with oxygen to form a compound such as iron oxide (rust). 

PhARMA, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (pronounced /ˈfɑrmə/), founded in 1958, is a trade group representing the pharmaceutical research and biopharmaceutical companies in the United States

Paleolithic diet is a diet based on the food humans' ancient ancestors might likely have eaten, such as meat, nuts, tubers, and berries.  Current and hunter-gatherer groups are used to determine the diet.  Globally there is great variation.  Fruits before agriculture had a much lower sucrose and fructose content. These people have a near zero rate of the Western list of non-communicable diseases (NCD).  However with the introduction of the Western diet these peoples develop NCDs.    Human metabolism has developed for this diet. 

Pancreas an abdominal organ of the digestive and endocrine that produces several important hormones including glucagon, insulin, and pancreatic polypeptide and also digestive juices that assist in absorption of nutrients in the small intestine which help breakdown proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. 

Polypeptide, chain of biological occurring molecules consisting of few than 51 amino acids, whi8ch distinguishes it from the longer chain proteins. 

Polyphagia (sometimes known as hyperphagia) is a medical sign meaning excessive hunger and abnormally large intake of solids by mouth. It can be caused by disorders such as diabetesKleine–Levin syndrome (a malfunction in the hypothalamus), the genetic disorders Prader–Willi syndrome, and Bardet–Biedl syndrome.

Polypharmacy  is the use of four or more medications by a patient, generally adults aged over 65 years where it occurs in greater than 40%, and by 21% of those who are retarded, and over 80% of those who are in assisted living facilities.  It is impossible to accurately predict the side effects of a cocktail of drugs.  . 

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, a large class of fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule.  Being unsaturated entails that the carbon chain is subject to oxidation which results in the polyunsaturated fatty acids becoming rancid.  This poses a health risk in that some of these products of oxidation cannot be metabolized and thus like trans-fats promote atherogenesis with its assorted unhealthy consequences—see saturated fats.  Principle sources are vegetable oils such as sunflower, canola, and Soy bean, all of which are GMOs..

Proteins, a large biological molecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids; distinguished from the shorter single chain polypeptide.  Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactionsreplicating DNAresponding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another.

RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products is a 35 kD atransmembrane receptor of the immuno-globulin super family which was first characterized in 1992 by Neeper et al.[2] It is also called "AGER".  Its name comes from its ability to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGE), which include chiefly glycoproteins, the glycans of which have been modified non-enzymatically [randomly] through the Maillard reaction.  See AGE above, 

Resistant starch (RS):   is starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.[1][2] Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.[3]

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.[1]  Main sources are from the metabolism of  glucose in the mitochondria, and form the further degredation of oxidized unsaturated oil.

Saccharide is a carbohydrate which includes sugars, starch and cellulose.  The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharidesdisaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Saturated fatty acids, a class of fat with a long chain of carbon all single bonds and an organic acid group.

Satiety score, see paragraph at bottom of this section

Starch is long chains of glucose units.  This polysaccharide is produced mostly by green plants as an energy store and is distinguished from the glycogen form produced mainly by vertebrates and fungi.  Digestion (breaking upon glucose units for metabolism) depends upon having the righr digestives enzyme.

Steatosis, in cellular pathology is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell in vesicles that displace cytoplasm.

Sucrose (sugar, table sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar) a disaccharide consisting of the molecules glucose and fructose—distinguished from malt sugar, barley sugar, etc. 

Sugar (table sugar, sucrose): 1) a sweet, crystalline disaccharide obtained from the juice of sugar can or sugar beets.  2) In chemistry a class of carbohydrates with 3 or more carbons forming a backbone which  to which are attached oxygen  and hydrogen.  Most of these carbon chains can form ring structures with one member of the ring being oxygen. They often form disaccharides that or easily hydrolyzed enzymatically into monosaccharides that usually exist in a ring formation.  3) A generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrate--consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen--many of which are used in food.     

Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As such, they are an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. In mammals and most chordates, three forms of superoxide dismutase are present. SOD1 is located primarily in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in the mitochondria and SOD3 is extracellular.

Supplement (dietary), taken to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.  They include foods, drugs, and other products.

ROS Reactive Oxygen species

Tobacco ethics, the principles of short-term maximization of profits which guides the decision process of corporations.  The term alludes to the fact that public wheal is consistently compromised for maximization of profits.

Tobacco science, marketing science, research done to promote financial gain and is in its published scientific journal form significantly below the standards of sound science.

Trans-fats (trans-isomer) in the carbon chain of a fatty acid a double-bounded between 2-carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom on the upside of the chain and the other on the downside.  If the hydrogens in the double-bonded carbon are on the same side it is a cis-isomer.  Trans isomers are rare in nature, but are commercial produced in quantity through a process of partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats (vegetable oils) because the trans configuration is of lower energy than the cis, and thus the preferred configuration.   

Triglycerides (TG) an ester obtained from glycerol by esterification of three hydroxyl groups with fatty acids; an important energy source forming most of the fat stored by the body. 

Tunica media (short media) the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.  In the artery it consists mostly of muscle cells and is where plaque forms and collects in response to inflammation caused by pathogens, macrophages and damaged LDL.

Type-1 diabetes (mellitus), T1D, T1DM, juvenile onset diabetes , a condition where the immune system destroys 60% or more of the insulin producing beta cell in the pancreas.   

Type-2 diabetes (mellitus), T2D, T2DM, NIDDM, diabetes, adult onset diabetes:  a medical condition which results from high serum glucose as a result of insulin resistance and with the subsequent overproduction of insulin by the beta cells in the pancreas.  In many cases this will progress to a rather sudden reversal where insulin is under-produced, even though the beta cells of the pancreas are still functional.   This condition can be reversed by a combination of alternate-day fast and low insulin diet, or bariatric surgery.  The extreme low carb diet is the best way to manage T1D. 

Unsaturated fat a large class of fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule.

Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)  is a large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein secreted by the liver that transports triglyceride to adipose tissue and muscle. The triglycerides in VLDL are removed in capillaries by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, and the VLDL returns to the circulation as a smaller particle with a new name, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL).  Its diameter is between 30-80 nm. 

Visceral fat, abdominal fat:  is located inside the abdominal cavity, packed between the organs (stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys, etc.  Distinguished from subcutaneous fat underneath the skin and intra-muscular fat interspersed in the skeletal muscles.  An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or "belly fat",   Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes,[9] insulin resistance,[10] inflammatory diseases,[11] and other obesity-related diseases.

Western Diet, Western lifestyle:   dietary pattern in developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries.  It is characterized by high intakes of processed foods with their added sugars, refined grains, high fructose drinks, low saturated fats, and the frequent eating at fast food restaurants.  Fat is typically reduced to about 30% of calories which is replaced by carbohydrates.  The Western diet/lifestyle is responsible for the epidemic increase in non-communicable diseases, especially T2D, NAFLD, MeS, atherosclerosis, CVD, age related degenerative diseases, and their deadly consequences.   

Conditions associated with the western diet (CAWD) the most significant are neuro-degenerative diseases, cancer,  atherosclerosis and its associated heart attacks, strokes (hypertension is a sign, not a condition), insulin resistance which is causal for type-2 diabetes, weight gain, obesity, osteoporosis, arthritis (both types), and macular degeneration.  But for cancer these conditions are extremely rare among aboriginal peoples on their traditional diet.                                    

Note on Wikipedia:  pharma through their KOLs has written and rewritten the contents to support their goals. 


Insulin Index is a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. This measure can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load.  Others such, for example fructose causes only 1/5th the response of glucose.   


.Glycemic index (GI):   “A measure of the blood-glucose level over 2 hour after 12 hours of fasting to a certain quantity of food, usually 50 grams based on the measurement of 10 subjects.  This is an imperfect measurement because 1) a sources of carbohydrates are eaten with sauces, milk, cheese, meats etc. such as cereals, spaghetti, and breads which slow absorption; 2) meats, e.g. though they have little glucose but trigger insulin response, and 3) fructose and galactose are not glucose though they provide energy and cause glycation at a higher rate than glucose.  


Glycemic load (GL):  of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating one portion.  One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose.  Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is defined as the fraction of available carbohydrate in the food times the food's GI.


Satiety score (value, index) is based upon 240-calorie portions of 38 different foods fed volunteers. A table was devised on how much after eating one of those foods, the volunteers ate at a buffet 2 hours later.  White bread is a baseline with a rating of 100. 

What you need to take with you:  That fructose is very reactive and it is only metabolized in the liver.  There it is converted into fat and too much fructose through fat accumulation damages liver cells.  Fructose in vivo (body) is 15 times more reactive than glucose; thus fructose damages cells   throughout the body.  This reaction in the liver contributes to insulin resistance.  Fructose starts the path to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which afflicts over 1/3rd of adults.  Sugars that contain fructose are the worse of carbs.  Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose.  The insulin causes muscles cells to absorb glucose for metabolism, and causes fat cells to store its fat and absorb serum fat.  Insulin resistance occurs when the fat and muscle cells becoming tolerant to insulin, and thus the pancreas secrets more insulin to lower plasma glucose.  Low serum insulin causes fat cells to release fat and muscle cells to metabolize the fat.  Therefore, eat a very low insulin (carb) diet for a year to let your liver heal, end insulin resistance, and to reset your body’s weight-control system to your new lower weight.  Physical exertion, and small low carb meals (thus high in fats, fiber, protein) keeps your insulin low.  Because polyunsaturated fats become rancid in your body, saturated fats are the best source of energy, second best are monounsaturated fats. 

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