used in dietary
fat: see visceral fat.
(Acetyl coenzyme A): its main
function to convey carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the Krebs (citric
acid) cycle to be oxidized. It also
plays an essential role in the metabolism of glucose, degradation of fatty
acids, and the metabolism of amino acids.
It also is one of two components
of the common neural transmitter acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter
in all autonomic ganglia.
triphosphate, see ATP
Adiponectin is one of the five hormones produced by adipose tissue. Adiponectin
in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice. It has
many effects including increase glucose uptake, decrease gluconeogenesis, lipid
catabolism, insulin sensitivity, etc.
tissue or body fat or
just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. Human
fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. If insulin is elevated there is a net
inward flux of lipids (FFA), and
only when insulin is low can FFA
leave adipose tissue. Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar,
which results from consuming carbohydrates.
(lipocytes) fat cells are the cells
that primarily compose adipose tissue.
They specialize in storing fat as energy. There are three types, white,
brown. The white cells secrete many
proteins such as such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and Apelin. An average adult has 30 lbs. of white
cells. The less common brown cells have
a large quantity of mitochondria which make them brown. Their mitochondria produce
diet (New Adkins diet ), the
most popular low carb diet, which
consists of 4 phases, the first two weeks is extremely low carbs (induction
phase), followed by a “weight loss phase”, and once weight goal is obtained a
“pre-maintenance phase” where carb level is increased until weight is
stabilized in which it then becomes the “lifetime maintenance phase”.
glycation end products (AGEs) the end products of
a reaction in which a monosaccharide bonds to a protein molecule—fructose being
the most reactive common sugar. AGEs are
implicated in many chronic diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetes and
aminotransferase, ALT, measured in a blood tells and
used as an indication of liver function—sensitive to the amount of fat in the
liver—see fatty liver disease.
Amino acid: biologically important organic
compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic
acid (-COOH) functional
groups, and are essential
nutrients. The key
elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are 20 common
amino acids, and are the building blocks of proteins and polypeptides.
one which occurs without the presence of oxygen
one which occurs in the presence of oxygen
Atheroma is an accumulation of degenerative material in the tunica intima(inner layer) of artery walls. The material consists of (mostly) macrophage cells, or debris, containing lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of
fibrous connective tissue.
It is a type of puss from the underlying infection within the artery
wall—a thing pharma doesn’t treat,.
(AS): results from a thicken of the
artery walls as a result of the accumulation of the debris from the complex
immune system response white blood cells to pathogens colonizing the arteries
tunica media (see macrophage and LDL).
It is the primary cause of hypertension and ischemic events. See cholesterol
myth for what it isn’t. The Western
high carb diet with polyunsaturated and trans fats is a major cause of
Adenosine triphosphate, the body’s energy molecule: is a nucleoside
triphosphate that transports chemical energy created
through metabolism in the mitochondria and used to power over 90% of the body’s
chemical reactions, such as those which permit muscle contractions and the
synthesis of compounds. ATP goes from a high state of energy to a
low state. The main way ATP goes
back to the high state of
energy is through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates or fats
in the mitochondria, where ATP is
restored to three phosphate groups (PO4).
(weight loss surgery): any
of a variety of procedures that reduce
the size of the stomach or the absorption of food by constructing a gastric
bypass of the duodenum section of the small intestines. Such surgery through
fasting and low
carbohydrate diet in the first month cures over 90% of cases cures type-2
Bliss point: the
combination of ingredients in manufactured foods that through taste maximizes
sales. The bliss point relies heavily
upon the use of sugar, fat, and salt, of which sugar is the most important
Body Mass index
(BMI) is a
measurement of relative weight based on an individual’s mass and height,
devised by Adolphe Queteiet of Belgian around 1840. BMI = (mass (lb.)/(height(in))2)/703.07. Normal is 18.5-25; overweight
obese >30 with morbidly obese >40.
Obesity is approximately 25% above lean body weight.
pharmacology and veterinary medicine around mass of medicinal material larger
than an ordinary pill. A 75 g of glucose
bolus is used in the glucose tolerance test—see glycated hemoglobin.
(carb) a biological
molecule consisting of a poly-hydrated ketone or aldehyde
with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and a formula of Cm(H2
(with a few exceptions); in biochemistry a saccharide. Common ones are the starches,
fibers which are starches that resist the digestive process. Carbs and fats
are the main sources used by
the mitochondria in the production of ATP.
disease (CVD) is a condition involving
atherosclerosis that of the coronary and
other arteries. It causes ischemic heart
disease, ischemic events, and angina pectoris.
Often the term CVD is used
interchangeable with coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease
Cholesterol, a waxy
sterol that is an essential component of cell walls and also used in the
product of sex hormones, digestive bile, cortisol, and much more. Nearly all
cells produce cholesterol. The
main blood serum source is from synthesis in the liver (+70%)—not diet. Not
a lipid (fat), it is often grouped with
them as in lipid profile, hyperlipidemia
and dyslipidemia; in this context “lipid” means resembling fat in
appearance and feel.
Cholesterol myth: a belief
promoted by pharma and their “experts” (KOLs). Basic research has however shown the main
cause is pathogens that colonize the muscular walls of arteries. The serum level
of cholesterol is not associated with CVD
and ischemic events; though pharma
claims it is and treats high cholesterol with drugs, though this doesn’t
prevent ischemic events, though they claim it does. Numerous critics have pointed
nevertheless, half of all senior take a statin which clearly lowers that
quality of life and increase the rate of mortality from MI by lowering the
amount of ATP in muscles including
the hear. ATP is what muscles use in the
reaction that causes contraction.
acid cycle see Krebs cycle.
syrup (glucose syrup, dextrose syrup): syrup made from maize or corn starch; pure
glucose with some maltose and higher oligosaccharides depending on grade. Prepared
by adding alpha-amylase to corn
starch and water, and then glucoamylase
Cytoplasm: comprises cystosol
a gel like substance enclosed within a cell membrane fluid that fills the inner
spaces of eukaryote organisms. The
organhelles such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum are contained in
the cytoplasm. This fluid in the nucleus
is called nucleoplasm. Protoplasm is
both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm.
(grape sugar, dextroglucose) is the
dextro-rotarory isomer of
glucose, occurs widely in fruit, honey, and blood of animals. The most common
form of glucose.
cells (cells of the endothelium):
is the thin layer of simple squamous cells that lines the interior surface of blood
vessels and lymphatic
vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood
are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with
lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.
functions of endothelial cells include mediation of coagulation, platelet adhesion, immune function and
control of volume and electrolyte content of the intravascular and extravascular spaces. Most significant is the inflammation within
the tunica media that produces atheromas.
Like a pimple with puss, the atheroma can leak its contents. Once mature
and harden though constricting
blood flow, it rarely leaks. However,
pharma treats the constriction with drugs that modify neural-transmitter
cells (of the epithelium): is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with muscle
tissue and nervous
tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood
vessels and organs through- out the body.
There are three principal shapes of epithelial cells —squamous, columnar
and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells, or layers of
two or more cells.
consist of a group of 4 female sex hormone in humans of which estradiol
is the most active.
(fatty acid) free fatty acids (FFA): a subset of
lipids with a chain of carbon atoms filled with hydrogen, and on last carbon
has the organic acid group--thus is also called “fatty acid”. The
fatty acids are commonly joined in groups
of three through a glycerol molecule to form a triglyceride for storage.
dietary fiber is the component in food not broken down by digestive
enzymes and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the fiber is
broken down by intestinal bacteria and a small portion is gradually absorbed
through intestinal walls. This fiber
includes hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, cellulose, (all
carbohydrates), and lignin, the only non-carbohydrate component of dietary
fiber. Because of the slow absorption
fiber does not cause an insulin spike, and like proteins and fats delays stomach
clearance and thus lowers the insulin spike
following a meal.
(fruit sugar) a monosaccharide found
Main sources are the disaccharide sucrose, fruits, and high fructose
corn syrup. It is metabolized in the
liver into either glucose or fat. A
high-carb diet causes the fat from fructose
to be stored in the in the liver. Over
years this can develop into IR and NAFLD.
Also fructose is 7.5 more reactive then glucose, and it is cleared at
about half the rate from the blood that glucose is. Through the process of glycation fructose damages the liver and causes our chronic age-related diseases.
of vegetable oil: the process
whereby hydrogen is attached to a
fat at the point of a double bond in the chain of carbon atoms making up the
fat. This process while improving the
commercial usefulness of vegetable oils (taste and shelf life), creates the
unnatural, unhealthy trans-fats.
Galactose one of the
two sugars in the disaccharide lactose
(hunger hormone, lenomorelin, INN): hormone
produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal track which function as
a neuropeptide in the central nervous system, and it plays a significant role
in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy. Ghrelin
also plays an important role in regulating reward perception in dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental
area to the nucleus
accumbens (a site that plays a role in processing sexual desire, reward, and reinforcement, and in developing addictions) through
its colocalized receptors and interaction with dopamine and acetylcholine. It also goes to the same receptors as leptin,
the satiety hormone.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, that raises blood glucose levels. Its
effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into
stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose
levels stimulate the release of insulin.
tolerance test consists of giving
a fasting patient 75 g of glucose and then
measuring plasma glucose ever 15 or 30 minutes for 2 hours. The level of plasma
glucose if at 2 hours is
above 7.8 he is consider to be insulin resistant (impaired glucose tolerance)
and above 11.1 as diabetic; though a better test than HBAc1, literature states
it as inferior.
monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in animals it is
stored as long chain called glycogen.
Glucose is as one half of the disaccharide
sucrose, and is also obtained from the hydrolysis of starches which are long
chains of glucose molecules. Glucose and
fat are the main sources for production of ATP.
hemoglobin (HbAc1) measures the amount of
blood sugars over a period of about 20 days, and thus is considered a better
measurement. However, given that rate of
glycation of fructose is 15 times that of glucose, this test fails to exclude
those whose diet is high in fructose from those whose elevated reading is
because of glucose. (Fructose is
cleared from the blood following a soda at haft the rate of glucose.)
Glycation: a process where a monosaccharide
attaches to proteins and thereby adversely affects the proteins’
functions. Fructose is by far the most
reactive common sugar.
paragraph at bottom of this section
paragraph at bottom of this section
(blycerine): a sugar alcohol
consisting of a chain of 3 carbons each with an alcohol group attached. It forms
the bridge to which 3 fatty acids
attach to form a triglyceride.
Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. It is analogous to starch.
The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose
in the body. A 150 lb. person stores at
most 3 lbs. of glycogen—amount is dependent upon physical conditioning. It
is hydrated with 3 to 4 parts water, thus
making too bulky for mass energy storage.
The main storage area is the liver which has 100 to 120 g of
glycogen. In the muscles up to 2% by
weight is glycogen, where it functions as an immediate reserve source for
glucose. Insulin stimulates the
production of glycogen.
breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid—an anaerobic
High fructose corn syrup, HFCS,
fructose-glucose syrup: corn (nearly pure glucose) syrup that
undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into
fructose. HFCS consists of 24% water,
and most commonly 55% fructose and 42% glucose (HFCS 55). It is used as a replacement
for sugar because
of its much lower price.
state of body equilibrium, maintenance of a stable internal environment
in a body.
or amino acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical
messengers to regulate specific body functions.
Ischemic event, acute ischemic event: acute event causing cell death due to the
sudden lack of blood supply and thus oxygen; commonly used to indicate a heart
attack or stroke.
is the main
blood glucose regulatory hormone
produced by the pancreas. It causes
tissues to absorb and burn glucose and also to store fat (not burn). High
blood insulin is caused by the Western
diet which is high in carbs and thus low in fat. This has caused long-term high
insulin, and thus the obesity and diabetes pandemics. Blood glucose and to a
much lesser extent the
amino acids arginine and leucine stimulate the production and release of
insulin. Insulin also inhibits the
product of glucose by the liver from fructose and controls fat storage and
glucose metabolism and affects hunger through regulation of the hormone leptin
and ghrelin. Blood glucose, amino acids
arginine and leucine, and various digestive system derived hormones stimulate
the production and release of insulin. Low insulin results in the medical
condition type-1 diabetes. Higher than
normal blood insulin per unit of glucose indicates insulin resistance.
Index a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods. The
Insulin Index is based on the consumption of 1,000kJ (kilo joules) of the given
food. White bread is rated at 100. See
Insulin like growth factor
resistance (IR) the condition in which cells have
reduced response to hormone insulin, and this results in a high blood glucose
level. IR first occurs in the
liver, then depending upon diet it can also develop in the muscles and adipose
(fat) cells. The pancreas produces more
insulin in response to the elevated glucose.
Due to exItis analogouscessive accumulation of fat in the pancreas the
beta cells will reduce their production of insulin which results in type-2
bodies: are water-soluble molecules
derived from fatty acids, There are 3 natural ones: acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric
the third is acetone. Ketones bodies are
picked up by cells and converted into acetyl-CoA.
Ketosis is a metabolic process in which
most of the body’s energy supply (ATP) comes from ketone bodies; an alternate
to glycolysis where glucose provides most of the energy.
leading researchers, administrators, or spokespersons within a specialty
of medicine, who are--with rare exception--beholding to the financial support
given by pharma and reciprocate by presenting pharma’s tobacco science and
providing other services.
(citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TGA)): is a series of chemical
reactions used by all aerobic
organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and
proteins into carbon
dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing
agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions.
Lactose (milk sugar): the
disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose.
Leptin is the
satiety hormone which stimulates the brain’s hunger center to suppress
appetite, while ghrelin has the opposite effect. Leptin is produced by fat cells. Leptin also regulates metabolism. When on an
energy restricted diet (except fasting
or very low-carb diet) there is a 20% reduction in metabolism, and through
Ghrelin an increase in appetite. Fat
cells through leptin function to maintain their fat store, which it is why
energy restricted diets don’t work long-term.
Leptin level increase during the night and during fasting, and thus
resistance occurs when the cells
under-respond to hunger. High leptin increase hunger and storing of
Lipid: has two meaning:
1) a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others that are water insoluble and have a greasy
appearance and feel to touch. The
main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and are the chief structural components of cell membranes. 2) The term often is
also used to mean “fats”, such as in journal articles describing the
peroxidation of lipids, which are on polyunsaturated fats.
Low density lipoprotein (LDL):
A spherical particle consisting of 3-6 thousand particles (over 1,000
triglycerides and phospholipids, and
1,000 cholesterol molecules raped within a single apolipoprotein B-100
molecule of 4,356 amino acids along with 80 to 100 ancillary proteins. They
are made in the liver for blood transport
to cells in need of cholesterol and fatty acids. They also have an immune function
toxins and reactive chemical attach to LDL—a thing KOLs and their textbooks
ignore for the promotion of drug sales, but basic published research support.
large white cells that function as
scavenger in the removal of debris and also the removal of foreign invaders
such as fungus and bacteria; they also promote healing from infections.
syndrome is a
disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of
three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central)
obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum
triglycerides, type-2 diabetes, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.
Though a metabolic imbalance pharma includes non-metabolic conditions
such high lipid-cholesterol and hypertension.
reference to diet, refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat
& carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP by the mitochondria.
Under conditions of starvation proteins also can be used as a source of ATP.
are nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate
a range of
physiological functions. For people, they include dietary trace
minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams/day,
s a membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
These structures are sometimes described as "the powerhouse of the
cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. The number varies, for instance, red
blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver
cells can have more than 2000.
Because of the reactive chemical produced in the production of ATP, they
are enclosed to prevent seepage. They
have their own DNA with 36 genes that are passed down by the mother. Their decline
with age is responsible for the
diminished capacity for physical excursion
oils: a fatty acids with one double
bond in the carbon chain that is not
nearly as prone to oxidation as polyunsaturated fats, but more so than
saturated fats. Dietary rich sources Coconut,
Palm Kernel, and Olive oils.
(muscle cells/fiber): are long tubular
cells that develop from the myoblast to form muscles.
Neuropathy: is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ
function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication e.g., chemotherapy, traumatic injury, radiation therapy, neuroleptic drugs, polypharmacy, excessive
alcohol consumption, immune system disease or viral infection.
fatty liver disease the accumulation of fat by hepatocytes sufficient to
significantly adversely affect various liver functions. The NHANES survey 2011
found NAFLD in 30% of
adult population and 75% of those obese—similar percentages for Europe. Diagnosed
by ultrasound, steatosis is suspect
when obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, visceral fat, and elevated liver
enzymes occur in the patient.
causal pathway is accumulation of fat in the liver from the conversion of
fructose to fat in the liver, and stored that due to a high carb diet. This
condition requires a steady diet of
carbs and sugar which prevents the clearance of fat in the liver.
Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to
survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism's
metabolic system to function, while micronutrients provide the necessary
cofactors for metabolism to be carried out.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): is the most extreme form of NAFLD and is regarded as a major cause
of cirrhosis of the liver in non-alcoholics. It is a type of liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver (steato-,
meaning "fat", hepatitis, meaning "inflammation of the
liver"). More deposition of fat in the liver is termed steatosis, and together these constitute fatty liver changes; found frequently in the obese
and people with T2D and may progress
to cirrhosis. Over a 10-year period up to 20% of patients with NASH will
develop cirrhosis of the liver, and 10% will die from related liver diseases. NASH
is associated with lysosomal acid and
Research and Manufacturers of America (pronounced /ˈfɑrmə/),
founded in 1958, is a trade group representing the pharmaceutical research and biopharmaceutical companies in the United
chain of biological occurring molecules
consisting of few than 51
amino acids, whi8ch distinguishes it from the longer chain proteins.
Polyphagia (sometimes known as hyperphagia)
is a medical
sign meaning excessive hunger and abnormally large intake of solids by mouth. It
caused by disorders such as diabetes, Kleine–Levin
syndrome (a malfunction in the hypothalamus), the genetic disorders Prader–Willi
syndrome, and Bardet–Biedl
is the use of four
or more medications by a
patient, generally adults aged over 65 years where it occurs in greater than
40%, and by 21% of those who are retarded, and over 80% of those who are in
assisted living facilities. It is
impossible to accurately predict the side effects of a cocktail of drugs. .
fatty acids, a large class of fatty
acids with 2 or more double bonds in the
carbon chain of a fat molecule. Being
unsaturated entails that the carbon chain is subject to oxidation which results
in the polyunsaturated fatty acids becoming rancid. This poses a health risk
in that some of
these products of oxidation cannot be metabolized and thus like trans-fats
promote atherogenesis with its assorted unhealthy consequences—see saturated
fats. Principle sources are vegetable
oils such as sunflower, canola, and Soy bean, all of which are GMOs..
Proteins, a large
biological molecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids;
distinguished from the shorter single chain polypeptide. Proteins
perform a vast array of functions within living
organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one
location to another.
Resistant starch (RS): is starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small
intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is
to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.
Saccharide is a
carbohydrate which includes sugars, starch and cellulose. The
saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
fatty acids, a class
of fat with a long chain of carbon all single bonds and an organic acid group.
Satiety score, see paragraph at bottom of this section
Starch is long chains of glucose units. This
polysaccharide is produced mostly by
green plants as an energy store.
Steatosis, in cellular pathology is the process
describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell in vesicles that
Sucrose (sugar, table sugar, beet
sugar, cane sugar) a disaccharide consisting of the molecules glucose and
fructose—distinguished from malt sugar, barley sugar, etc.
(table sugar, sucrose):
1) a sweet, crystalline disaccharide obtained from the juice of sugar can or
sugar beets. 2) In chemistry a class of
carbohydrates with 3 or more carbons forming a backbone which to which are attached
oxygen and hydrogen.
Most of these carbon chains can form ring structures with one member of
the ring being oxygen. They often form disaccharides that or easily hydrolyzed
enzymatically into monosaccharides that usually exist in a ring formation. 3)
A generalized name for sweet, short-chain,
soluble carbohydrate--consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen--many of which
are used in food.
(dietary), taken to provide nutrients
that may otherwise not be consumed in
sufficient quantities. They include
foods, drugs, and other products.
ethics, the principles of short-term
maximization of profits which guides
the decision process of corporations.
The term alludes to the fact that public wheal is consistently
compromised for maximization of profits.
Ethics: used to
describe how corporations function, namely in the same way as the tobacco
industry: the short-term maximization of
profits above all. This results from the
corporate system’s measures performance; thus they have coopted the regulatory
system and use the media to paint a pleasing face.
science, marketing science, research
done to promote financial gain and is
in its published scientific journal form significantly below the standards of
Trans-fats (trans-isomer) in the carbon chain
of a fatty acid a double-bounded between 2-carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom
on the upside of the chain and the other on the downside. If the hydrogens in
the double-bonded carbon
are on the same side it is a cis-isomer.
Trans isomers are rare in nature, but are commercial produced in
quantity through a process of partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats
(vegetable oils) because the trans configuration is of lower energy than the
cis, and thus the preferred configuration.
an ester obtained from glycerol by
esterification of three hydroxyl groups with fatty acids; an important energy
source forming most of the fat stored by the body.
Unsaturated fat a large
class of fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat
diabetes (mellitus), T1D, T1DM, juvenile onset diabetes , a
condition where the immune system destroys 60% or more of the insulin producing
beta cell in the pancreas.
diabetes (mellitus), T2D, T2DM, NIDDM, diabetes, adult onset diabetes: a medical condition which results from
high serum glucose as a result of insulin resistance and with the subsequent
overproduction of insulin by the beta cells in the pancreas. In many cases this
will progress to a rather
sudden reversal where insulin is under-produced, even though the beta cells of
the pancreas are still functional. This
condition can be reversed by a combination of alternate-day fast and low
insulin diet, or bariatric surgery. The
extreme low carb diet is the best way to manage T1D.
fat, abdominal fat: is
located inside the abdominal cavity, packed between the organs (stomach, liver,
intestines, kidneys, etc. Distinguished
from subcutaneous fat underneath the skin and intra-muscular fat interspersed in
the skeletal muscles. An excess of visceral
fat is known as central
"belly fat", Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammatory diseases, and other obesity-related diseases.
pattern in developed countries, and increasingly in developing
countries. It is characterized by high
intakes of processed foods with their
added sugars, refined grains, high fructose drinks, low saturated fats, and the frequent eating
at fast food
restaurants. Fat is typically reduced to
about 30% of calories which is replaced by carbohydrates. The Western diet/lifestyle
is responsible for
the epidemic increase in non-communicable diseases, especially T2D, NAFLD, MeS, atherosclerosis, CVD,
age related degenerative diseases, and their deadly consequences.