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Terms used in dietary articles

Terms used in dietary articles  -- 9/23/15  USE

Abdominal fat: see visceral fat.

Acetyl-CoA (Acetyl coenzyme A):  its main function to convey carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the Krebs (citric acid) cycle to be oxidized.  It also plays an essential role in the metabolism of glucose, degradation of fatty acids, and the metabolism of amino acids.   It also is one of two components of the common neural transmitter acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia. 

Adenosine triphosphate, see ATP

Adiponectin is one of the five hormones produced by adipose tissue.  Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice.  It has many effects including increase glucose uptake, decrease gluconeogenesis, lipid catabolism, insulin sensitivity, etc. 

Adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.  Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids.  If insulin is elevated there is a net inward flux of lipids (FFA), and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming carbohydrates.

Adipocytes (lipocytes) fat cells are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue.  They specialize in storing fat as energy.  There are three types, white, beige, and brown.  The white cells secrete many proteins such as such as resistinadiponectinleptin and Apelin.   An average adult has 30 lbs. of white cells.  The less common brown cells have a large quantity of mitochondria which make them brown.  Their mitochondria produce ATP.

Adkins diet (New Adkins diet ), the most popular low carb diet, which consists of 4 phases, the first two weeks is extremely low carbs (induction phase), followed by a “weight loss phase”, and once weight goal is obtained a “pre-maintenance phase” where carb level is increased until weight is stabilized in which it then becomes the “lifetime maintenance phase”.  

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) the end products of a reaction in which a monosaccharide bonds to a protein molecule—fructose being the most reactive common sugar.  AGEs are implicated in many chronic diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetes and heart disease.    

Alanine aminotransferase, ALT, measured in a blood tells and used as an indication of liver function—sensitive to the amount of fat in the liver—see fatty liver disease. 

Amino acid:  biologically important organic compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH)  functional groups, and are essential nutrients. The key elements of an amino acid are carbonhydrogenoxygen, and nitrogen.    There are 20 common amino acids, and are the building blocks of proteins and polypeptides. 

Anaerobic process:  one which occurs without the presence of oxygen

Aerobic process:  one which occurs in the presence of oxygen

Atheroma is an accumulation of degenerative material in the tunica intima(inner layer) of artery walls. The material consists of (mostly) macrophage cells,[1][2] or debris, containing lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.  It is a type of puss from the underlying infection within the artery wall—a thing pharma doesn’t treat,.   

Atherosclerosis (AS):  results from a thicken of the artery walls as a result of the accumulation of the debris from the complex immune system response white blood cells to pathogens colonizing the arteries tunica media (see macrophage and LDL).  It is the primary cause of hypertension and ischemic events.  See cholesterol myth for what it isn’t.   The Western high carb diet with polyunsaturated and trans fats is a major cause of atherosclerosis.  

ATP, Adenosine triphosphate, the body’s energy molecule:   is a nucleoside triphosphate that transports chemical energy created through metabolism in the mitochondria and used to power over 90% of the body’s chemical reactions, such as those which permit muscle contractions and the synthesis of compounds.  ATP goes from a high state of energy to a low state.  The main way ATP goes back to the high state of energy is through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates or fats in the mitochondria, where ATP is restored to three phosphate groups (PO4). 

Bariatric Surgery (weight loss surgery):  any of a variety of procedures that reduce the size of the stomach or the absorption of food by constructing a gastric bypass of the duodenum section of the small intestines.  Such surgery through fasting and low carbohydrate diet in the first month cures over 90% of cases cures type-2 diabetes. 

Bliss point:  the combination of ingredients in manufactured foods that through taste maximizes sales.  The bliss point relies heavily upon the use of sugar, fat, and salt, of which sugar is the most important added ingredient.

Body Mass index (BMI) is a measurement of relative weight based on an individual’s mass and height, devised by Adolphe Queteiet of Belgian around 1840.  BMI = (mass (lb.)/(height(in))2)/703.07.  Normal is 18.5-25; overweight 25-30, and obese >30 with morbidly obese >40.  Obesity is approximately 25% above lean body weight. 

Bolus, in pharmacology and veterinary medicine around mass of medicinal material larger than an ordinary pill.  A 75 g of glucose bolus is used in the glucose tolerance test—see glycated hemoglobin.   

Carbohydrate (carb) a biological molecule consisting of a poly-hydrated ketone or aldehyde with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and a formula of ­C­m(H2 O)n (with a few exceptions); in biochemistry a saccharide.  Common ones are the starches, sugars, and fibers which are starches that resist the digestive process.  Carbs and fats are the main sources used by the mitochondria in the production of ATP.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a condition involving atherosclerosis that of the coronary and other arteries.  It causes ischemic heart disease, ischemic events, and angina pectoris.  Often the term CVD is used interchangeable with coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). 

Cholesterol, a waxy sterol that is an essential component of cell walls and also used in the product of sex hormones, digestive bile, cortisol, and much more.  Nearly all cells produce cholesterol. The main blood serum source is from synthesis in the liver (+70%)—not diet.  Not a lipid (fat), it is often grouped with them as in lipid profile, hyperlipidemia and dyslipidemia; in this context “lipid” means resembling fat in appearance and feel.

Cholesterol myth:  a belief promoted by pharma and their “experts” (KOLs).  Basic research has however shown the main cause is pathogens that colonize the muscular walls of arteries.  The serum level of cholesterol is not associated with CVD and ischemic events; though pharma claims it is and treats high cholesterol with drugs, though this doesn’t prevent ischemic events, though they claim it does.  Numerous critics have pointed this out; nevertheless, half of all senior take a statin which clearly lowers that quality of life and increase the rate of mortality from MI by lowering the amount of ATP in muscles including the hear.  ATP is what muscles use in the reaction that causes contraction.   

Citric acid cycle see Krebs cycle.

Corn syrup (glucose syrup, dextrose syrup):  syrup made from maize or corn starch; pure glucose with some maltose and higher oligosaccharides depending on grade.  Prepared by adding alpha-amylase to corn starch and water, and then glucoamylase

Cytoplasm:  comprises cystosol (intercellular fluid) a gel like substance enclosed within a cell membrane fluid that fills the inner spaces of eukaryote organisms.  The organhelles such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum are contained in the cytoplasm.  This fluid in the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. Protoplasm is both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. 

Dextrose (grape sugar, dextroglucose) is the dextro-rotarory isomer of glucose, occurs widely in fruit, honey, and blood of animals.  The most common form of glucose. 


Endothelial cells (cells of the endothelium): is the thin layer of simple squamous cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.  Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.

Endothelial dysfunction,. Normal functions of endothelial cells include mediation of coagulation, platelet adhesion, immune function and control of volume and electrolyte content of the intravascular and extravascular spaces.  Most significant is the inflammation within the tunica media that produces atheromas.  Like a pimple with puss, the atheroma can leak its contents.  Once mature and harden though constricting blood flow, it rarely leaks.  However, pharma treats the constriction with drugs that modify neural-transmitter functions. 

Epithelial cells (of the epithelium):   is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs  through- out the body.  There are three principal shapes of epithelial cells —squamous, columnar and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells, or layers of two or more cells.

Estrogen:  consist of a group of 4 female sex hormone in humans of which estradiol is the most active.  

Fat (fatty acid) free fatty acids (FFA):  a subset of lipids with a chain of carbon atoms filled with hydrogen, and on last carbon has the organic acid group--thus is also called “fatty acid”.  The fatty acids are commonly joined in groups of three through a glycerol molecule to form a triglyceride for storage. 

Fiber:  dietary fiber is the component in food not broken down by digestive enzymes and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the fiber is broken down by intestinal bacteria and a small portion is gradually absorbed through intestinal walls.  This fiber includes hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, cellulose, (all carbohydrates), and lignin, the only non-carbohydrate component of dietary fiber.  Because of the slow absorption fiber does not cause an insulin spike, and like proteins and fats delays stomach clearance and thus  lowers the insulin spike following a meal.

Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide found in fruits.  Main sources are the disaccharide sucrose, fruits, and high fructose corn syrup.  It is metabolized in the liver into either glucose or fat.  A high-carb diet causes the fat from fructose to be stored in the in the liver.  Over years this can develop into IR and NAFLD.  Also fructose is 7.5 more reactive then glucose, and it is cleared at about half the rate from the blood that glucose is.  Through the process of glycation fructose damages the liver and causes our chronic age-related diseases. 

Hydrogenation of vegetable oil:  the process whereby hydrogen is attached to a fat at the point of a double bond in the chain of carbon atoms making up the fat.  This process while improving the commercial usefulness of vegetable oils (taste and shelf life), creates the unnatural, unhealthy trans-fats.

Galactose one of the two sugars in the disaccharide lactose

Ghrelin (hunger hormone, lenomorelin, INN):  hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal track which function as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system, and it plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.  Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward perception in   dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens[7] (a site that plays a role in processing sexual desire, reward, and reinforcement, and in developing addictions) through its colocalized receptors and interaction with dopamine and acetylcholine.  It also goes to the same receptors as leptin, the satiety hormone.

Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, that raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.[1] The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low.  Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into stored   glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. 

Glucose tolerance test consists of giving a fasting patient 75 g of glucose and then measuring plasma glucose ever 15 or 30 minutes for 2 hours.  The level of plasma glucose if at 2 hours is above 7.8 he is consider to be insulin resistant (impaired glucose tolerance) and above 11.1 as diabetic; though a better test than HBAc1, literature states it as inferior.

Glucose a monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in animals it is stored as long chain called glycogen.  Glucose is as one half of the disaccharide sucrose, and is also obtained from the hydrolysis of starches which are long chains of glucose molecules.  Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.

Glycated hemoglobin (HbAc1) measures the amount of blood sugars over a period of about 20 days, and thus is considered a better measurement.  However, given that rate of glycation of fructose is 15 times that of glucose, this test fails to exclude those whose diet is high in fructose from those whose elevated reading is because of glucose.   (Fructose is cleared from the blood following a soda at haft the rate of glucose.)

Glycation:  a process where a monosaccharide randomly attaches to proteins and thereby adversely affects the proteins’ functions.  Fructose is by far the most reactive common sugar. 

Glycemic Index see paragraph at bottom of this section

Glycemic Load see paragraph at bottom of this section

Glycerol (blycerine):  a sugar alcohol consisting of a chain of 3 carbons each with an alcohol group attached.  It forms the bridge to which 3 fatty acids attach to form a triglyceride. 

Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. It is analogous to starch.  The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.  A 150 lb. person stores at most 3 lbs. of glycogen—amount is dependent upon physical conditioning.  It is hydrated with 3 to 4 parts water, thus making too bulky for mass energy storage.  The main storage area is the liver which has 100 to 120 g of glycogen.  In the muscles up to 2% by weight is glycogen, where it functions as an immediate reserve source for glucose.  Insulin stimulates the production of glycogen.    

Glycolysis:  the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid—an anaerobic process.

Hepatocytes:  a liver cell.

High fructose corn syrup, HFCS, fructose-glucose syrup:  corn (nearly pure glucose) syrup that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert some of its glucose into fructose.   HFCS consists of 24% water, and most commonly 55% fructose and 42% glucose (HFCS 55).  It is used as a replacement for sugar because of its much lower price. 

Homeostasis:  state of body equilibrium, maintenance of a stable internal environment in a body. 

Hormones:  steroidal or amino acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions.

Ischemic event, acute ischemic event:  acute event causing cell death due to the sudden lack of blood supply and thus oxygen; commonly used to indicate a heart attack or stroke. 

Insulin is the main blood glucose regulatory hormone produced by the pancreas.  It causes tissues to absorb and burn glucose and also to store fat (not burn).    High blood insulin is caused by the Western diet which is high in carbs and thus low in fat.  This has caused long-term high levels of insulin, and thus the obesity and diabetes pandemics.  Blood glucose and to a much lesser extent the amino acids arginine and leucine stimulate the production and release of insulin.  Insulin also inhibits the product of glucose by the liver from fructose and controls fat storage and glucose metabolism and affects hunger through regulation of the hormone leptin and ghrelin.  Blood glucose, amino acids arginine and leucine, and various digestive system derived hormones stimulate the production and release of insulin. Low insulin results in the medical condition type-1 diabetes.   Higher than normal blood insulin per unit of glucose indicates insulin resistance. 

Insulin Index a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods.  The Insulin Index is based on the consumption of 1,000kJ (kilo joules) of the given food.  White bread is rated at 100.  See bottom section

Insulin like growth factor (IGF),

Insulin resistance (IR) the condition in which cells have reduced response to hormone insulin, and this results in a high blood glucose level.  IR first occurs in the liver, then depending upon diet it can also develop in the muscles and adipose (fat) cells.  The pancreas produces more insulin in response to the elevated glucose.  Due to exItis analogouscessive accumulation of fat in the pancreas the beta cells will reduce their production of insulin which results in type-2 diabetes.

Ketone bodies: are water-soluble molecules derived from fatty acids, There are 3 natural ones:  acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid; the third is acetone.  Ketones bodies are picked up by cells and converted into acetyl-CoA.    

Ketosis is a metabolic process in which most of the body’s energy supply (ATP) comes from ketone bodies; an alternate to glycolysis where glucose provides most of the energy. 

Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs):  leading researchers, administrators, or spokespersons within a specialty of medicine, who are--with rare exception--beholding to the financial support given by pharma and reciprocate by presenting pharma’s tobacco science and providing other services. 

Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TGA)):  is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydratesfats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions.

Lactose (milk sugar): the disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose.

Leptin is the satiety hormone which stimulates the brain’s hunger center to suppress appetite, while ghrelin has the opposite effect.  Leptin is produced by fat cells.  Leptin also regulates metabolism. When on an energy restricted diet (except fasting or very low-carb diet) there is a 20% reduction in metabolism, and through Ghrelin an increase in appetite.  Fat cells through leptin function to maintain their fat store, which it is why energy restricted diets don’t work long-term.  Leptin level increase during the night and during fasting, and thus suppresses hunger.    

Leptin resistance occurs when the cells under-respond to hunger.  High leptin increase hunger and storing of fat.     

Lipid: has two meaning: 1) a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fatswaxessterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglyceridesdiglycerides, triglyceridesphospholipids, and others that are water insoluble and have a greasy appearance and feel to touch. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and are the chief structural components of cell membranes.  2) The term often is also used to mean “fats”, such as in journal articles describing the peroxidation of lipids, which are on polyunsaturated fats.

Low density lipoprotein (LDL): A spherical particle consisting of 3-6 thousand particles (over 1,000 triglycerides and phospholipids, and  1,000 cholesterol molecules raped within a single apolipoprotein B-100 molecule of 4,356 amino acids along with 80 to 100 ancillary proteins.  They are made in the liver for blood transport to cells in need of cholesterol and fatty acids.  They also have an immune function in which toxins and reactive chemical attach to LDL—a thing KOLs and their textbooks ignore for the promotion of drug sales, but basic published research support.

Macrophage large white cells that function as scavenger in the removal of debris and also the removal of foreign invaders such as fungus and bacteria; they also promote healing from infections. 

Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, type-2 diabetes, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.   Though a metabolic imbalance pharma includes non-metabolic conditions such high lipid-cholesterol and hypertension.

Metabolism in reference to diet, refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat & carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP by the mitochondria.  Under conditions of starvation proteins also can be used as a source of ATP.

Micronutrients:  are nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions.[1] For people, they include dietary trace minerals in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams/day, as opposed to macronutrients.   

Mitochondria s a membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.  These structures are sometimes described as "the powerhouse of the cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.  The number varies, for instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000.  Because of the reactive chemical produced in the production of ATP, they are enclosed to prevent seepage.  They have their own DNA with 36 genes that are passed down by the mother.  Their decline with age is responsible for the diminished capacity for physical excursion  . 

Monounsaturated oils: a fatty acids with one double bond in the carbon chain that is not nearly as prone to oxidation as polyunsaturated fats, but more so than saturated fats.  Dietary rich sources Coconut, Palm Kernel, and Olive oils.

Myocytes (muscle cells/fiber):  are long tubular cells that develop from the myoblast to form muscles.

Neuropathy:  is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication  e.g., chemotherapy, traumatic injury, radiation therapy, neuroleptic drugs, polypharmacy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease or viral infection. 

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease the accumulation of fat by hepatocytes sufficient to significantly adversely affect various liver functions.  The NHANES survey 2011 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population and 75% of those obese—similar percentages for Europe.  Diagnosed by ultrasound, steatosis is suspect when obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, visceral fat, and elevated liver enzymes occur in the patient.  The causal pathway is accumulation of fat in the liver from the conversion of fructose to fat in the liver, and stored that due to a high carb diet.  This condition requires a steady diet of carbs and sugar which prevents the clearance of fat in the liver. 

Nutrients are the components in foods that an organism utilizes to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism's metabolic system to function, while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH):  is the most extreme form of NAFLD and is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver in non-alcoholics. It is  a type of liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver (steato-, meaning "fat", hepatitis, meaning "inflammation of the liver"). More deposition of fat in the liver is termed steatosis, and together these constitute fatty liver changes; found frequently in the obese and people with T2D and may progress to cirrhosis. Over a 10-year period up to 20% of patients with NASH will develop cirrhosis of the liver, and 10% will die from related liver diseases.  NASH is associated with lysosomal acid and lipase deficiency. 

PhARMA, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (pronounced /ˈfɑrmə/), founded in 1958, is a trade group representing the pharmaceutical research and biopharmaceutical companies in the United States.. 

Polypeptide, chain of biological occurring molecules consisting of few than 51 amino acids, whi8ch distinguishes it from the longer chain proteins. 

Polyphagia (sometimes known as hyperphagia) is a medical sign meaning excessive hunger and abnormally large intake of solids by mouth. It can be caused by disorders such as diabetesKleine–Levin syndrome (a malfunction in the hypothalamus), the genetic disorders Prader–Willi syndrome, and Bardet–Biedl syndrome.

Polypharmacy  is the use of four or more medications by a patient, generally adults aged over 65 years where it occurs in greater than 40%, and by 21% of those who are retarded, and over 80% of those who are in assisted living facilities.  It is impossible to accurately predict the side effects of a cocktail of drugs.  . 

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, a large class of fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule.  Being unsaturated entails that the carbon chain is subject to oxidation which results in the polyunsaturated fatty acids becoming rancid.  This poses a health risk in that some of these products of oxidation cannot be metabolized and thus like trans-fats promote atherogenesis with its assorted unhealthy consequences—see saturated fats.  Principle sources are vegetable oils such as sunflower, canola, and Soy bean, all of which are GMOs..

Proteins, a large biological molecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids; distinguished from the shorter single chain polypeptide.  Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactionsreplicating DNAresponding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another.

Resistant starch (RS):   is starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.[1][2] Resistant starch occurs naturally in foods but is also added to foods by the addition of isolated or manufactured types of resistant starch.[3]

Saccharide is a carbohydrate which includes sugars, starch and cellulose.  The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharidesdisaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Saturated fatty acids, a class of fat with a long chain of carbon all single bonds and an organic acid group.

Satiety score, see paragraph at bottom of this section

Starch is long chains of glucose units.  This polysaccharide is produced mostly by green plants as an energy store. 

Steatosis, in cellular pathology is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell in vesicles that displace cytoplasm.

Sucrose (sugar, table sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar) a disaccharide consisting of the molecules glucose and fructose—distinguished from malt sugar, barley sugar, etc. 

Sugar (table sugar, sucrose): 1) a sweet, crystalline disaccharide obtained from the juice of sugar can or sugar beets.  2) In chemistry a class of carbohydrates with 3 or more carbons forming a backbone which  to which are attached oxygen  and hydrogen.  Most of these carbon chains can form ring structures with one member of the ring being oxygen. They often form disaccharides that or easily hydrolyzed enzymatically into monosaccharides that usually exist in a ring formation.  3) A generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrate--consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen--many of which are used in food.     

Supplement (dietary), taken to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.  They include foods, drugs, and other products.

Tobacco ethics, the principles of short-term maximization of profits which guides the decision process of corporations.  The term alludes to the fact that public wheal is consistently compromised for maximization of profits.

Tobacco Ethics:  used to describe how corporations function, namely in the same way as the tobacco industry:  the short-term maximization of profits above all.  This results from the corporate system’s measures performance; thus they have coopted the regulatory system and use the media to paint a pleasing face. 

Tobacco science, marketing science, research done to promote financial gain and is in its published scientific journal form significantly below the standards of sound science.

Trans-fats (trans-isomer) in the carbon chain of a fatty acid a double-bounded between 2-carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom on the upside of the chain and the other on the downside.  If the hydrogens in the double-bonded carbon are on the same side it is a cis-isomer.  Trans isomers are rare in nature, but are commercial produced in quantity through a process of partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats (vegetable oils) because the trans configuration is of lower energy than the cis, and thus the preferred configuration.   

Triglycerides an ester obtained from glycerol by esterification of three hydroxyl groups with fatty acids; an important energy source forming most of the fat stored by the body. 

Unsaturated fat a large class of fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule.

Type-1 diabetes (mellitus), T1D, T1DM, juvenile onset diabetes , a condition where the immune system destroys 60% or more of the insulin producing beta cell in the pancreas.   

Type-2 diabetes (mellitus), T2D, T2DM, NIDDM, diabetes, adult onset diabetes:  a medical condition which results from high serum glucose as a result of insulin resistance and with the subsequent overproduction of insulin by the beta cells in the pancreas.  In many cases this will progress to a rather sudden reversal where insulin is under-produced, even though the beta cells of the pancreas are still functional.   This condition can be reversed by a combination of alternate-day fast and low insulin diet, or bariatric surgery.  The extreme low carb diet is the best way to manage T1D.  

Visceral fat, abdominal fat:  is located inside the abdominal cavity, packed between the organs (stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys, etc.  Distinguished from subcutaneous fat underneath the skin and intra-muscular fat interspersed in the skeletal muscles.  An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or "belly fat",   Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes,[9] insulin resistance,[10] inflammatory diseases,[11] and other obesity-related diseases.

Western Diet, Western lifestyle:   dietary pattern in developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries.  It is characterized by high intakes of processed foods with their added sugars, refined grains, high fructose drinks, low saturated fats, and the frequent eating at fast food restaurants.  Fat is typically reduced to about 30% of calories which is replaced by carbohydrates.  The Western diet/lifestyle is responsible for the epidemic increase in non-communicable diseases, especially T2D, NAFLD, MeS, atherosclerosis, CVD, age related degenerative diseases, and their deadly consequences.   


Insulin Index is a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods. The index is similar to the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. This measure can be more useful than either the Glycemic Index or the Glycemic Load because certain foods (e.g., lean meats and proteins) cause an insulin response despite there being no carbohydrates present, and some foods cause a disproportionate insulin response relative to their carbohydrate load.  Others such, for example fructose causes only 1/5th the response of glucose.   


.Glycemic index (GI):   “A measure of the blood-glucose level over 2 hour after 12 hours of fasting to a certain quantity of food, usually 50 grams based on the measurement of 10 subjects.  This is an imperfect measurement because 1) a sources of carbohydrates are eaten with sauces, milk, cheese, meats etc. such as cereals, spaghetti, and breads which slow absorption; 2) meats, e.g. though they have little glucose but trigger insulin response, and 3) fructose and galactose are not glucose though they provide energy and cause glycation at a higher rate than glucose.  


Glycemic load (GL):  of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating one portion.  One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose.  Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is defined as the fraction of available carbohydrate in the food times the food's GI.


Satiety score (value, index) is based upon 240-calorie portions of 38 different foods fed volunteers. A table was devised on how much after eating one of those foods, the volunteers ate at a buffet 2 hours later.  White bread is a baseline with a rating of 100. 

What you need to take with you:  That fructose is very reactive and it is only metabolized in the liver.  There it is converted into fat and too much fructose through fat accumulation damages liver cells.  Fructose in vivo (body) is 15 times more reactive than glucose; thus fructose damages cells   throughout the body.  This reaction in the liver contributes to insulin resistance.  Fructose starts the path to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which afflicts over 1/3rd of adults.  Sugars that contain fructose are the worse of carbs.  Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose.  The insulin causes muscles cells to absorb glucose for metabolism, and causes fat cells to store its fat and absorb serum fat.  Insulin resistance occurs when the fat and muscle cells becoming tolerant to insulin, and thus the pancreas secrets more insulin to lower plasma glucose.  Low serum insulin causes fat cells to release fat and muscle cells to metabolize the fat.  Therefore, eat a very low insulin (carb) diet for a year to let your liver heal, end insulin resistance, and to reset your body’s weight-control system to your new lower weight.  Physical exertion, and small low carb meals (thus high in fats, fiber, protein) keeps your insulin low.  Because polyunsaturated fats become rancid in your body, saturated fats are the best source of energy, second best are monounsaturated fats. 

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