Home | VIDEOS, YouTube on food-drugs issues | VIDEOS YouTube on Economic-political Issues | Concise: Diets, health, weight, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes | Part 1: Cardiovascular disease causes | Part 2: CVD Myths: Fats, sugars, cholesterol, and Statins id2.html | Part 3:: Carbohydrates: types, tables, role in NAFLD & MeS | Part 4 Fats role in CVD | Rancid Polyunsaturated and Trans-fats are Bad | Part 5: Healthful Lifestyle, Diet, Supplements, & Drugs | Part 6: Ill-health pandemic: conditons, causes, and dietary fixes | Atkins Low Carb Diet with modifications | Diabetes meds, bad medicines | Evidence for Alternate Day Fasting--Cures diabetes | Terms used in dietary articles | Pharma's tobacco science, diet, Inuslin Resistance, diabetes | Best Healthful Supplement for seniors

Recommended Healthful

Atkins Low Carb Diet with modifications


Two of the most knowledge lecturers on diet who have looked widely at the issues, Gary Taubes science writer and Dr. Jason Fung, both have endorsed the NEW ATKINS DIET; they are the best current writers and lecturers I have found in my 2-year fulltime examination of the literature.  I too accept their finding on this diet, and add several modifications.  Below is the science behind the diet and the modifications I have attached.  If the technical parts are trying, then click on this link to a library of YouTube videos with my brief descriptions.    


AS         Atherosclerosis

 

N6          Omega 6 fatty acids   

CVD      Cardiovascular disease

 

MeS      Metabolic syndrome[1]

IR          Insulin resistance

 

NALFD  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

KOL      Key opinion leader

 

T2D       Type 2 Diabetes

N3       Omega 3 fatty acids   

 

ATP       Energy molecule adenosine triphosphate


 


Part 10 New Atkins Diet for obesity -- http://healthfully.org/rh/id14.html    10/23/15       


At the height of its popularity [2004], one in eleven North American adults was on the [Atkins] dietWiki; now it is under 2%.  There has been a major assault on the Atkins diet by Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs, scientists for hire).  The misinformation is carried by corporate media, by patient groups such as the American Heart Association, and by our government’s health agencies.  I just listened to a lecture by the Teaching Company “Nutrition Made Clear” by Prof. Roberta Anding, Baylor University. Her lecture on the Atkins diet misrepresents and then criticized her version.  It is classic example of a KOL (key opinion leader) repeating what she learnt from other KOLs.  Big-bucks lurk in the background.  Think what would happen to food manufacturers if the Americans lowered their refined carb intake by 50%; and to pharma if obesity and type-2 diabetes with their comorbidities went back to the 1970 level.  Food companies have been funding diet education since the 50s.  Dr. Fung’s article on the food manufacturers’ is on point, at.  What Prof Marcia Angell lectures about pharma and Prof. Ben Goldacre writes in Bad Pharma is the norm; what I call “tobacco science”.  The assault on Atkins diet and its scientific foundation is illustrative of corporate “tobacco ethics”. They have overturned 150 years of diet science through their KOLs to justify the high carb-sugar Western diet. 


So why does Atkins extremely low carb diet without energy restriction, work better than a low-fat, energy restricted diet?  There are 2 metabolic systems:  that of fat burning, and of glucose (carb) burning.  The Atkins diet, with its very low carbs forces fat burning.  Weight loss requires fat burning.  Another reason is that with carbs and energy restricting the body’s weight control system responds to maintain the pre-diet level of fat, and thus increases appetite and lowers metabolism. 


Let us go back to basics.  Starches are long chains of glucose.  Table sucrose (table sugar) is two sugars, glucose and fructose—so too is HFCS.  Refined starches are like table sugar, they are quickly absorbed by the digestive system in the form of glucose.  Both sugar and refined carbs cause an insulin spike (a bad thing).  Second insulin is excreted by the pancreas to lower blood glucose.  Insulin causes cells to store fat and burn glucose.  The Atkins induction phase is very low carbs thus causing both low insulin and fat burning.    


The next part explains why the Atkins diet works for people who are obese or long-term have been overweight; while the other diets over the long-haul fail.   Even when simplified to the main elements, the answer is complex (there are over 20 hormones involved in the regulation of appetite, fat storage, and metabolism).  The essentials on the Western (high refined carbs) diet disaster:  1) The path to obesity starts with a high sugar diet; the fructose is only metabolized in the liver where it is converted to fat or glucose.  2) High sugar and refined car diet causes higher than normal level of serum glucose and its regulatory hormone insulin.  3) Insulin tells the cells to burn glucose and store fat.  4) In excess over the years insulin causes the fat formed from fructose conversion to accumulation in the liver cells (fatty liver disease NAFLD), which mucks up metabolic processes regulated by the liver. 5) Over the years the liver, muscle and fat cells become resistant to insulin.  6) Insulin resistance means that a higher amount of insulin (a bad thing) is required to lower the blood glucose to a safe level.  7) Higher insulin increases the rate of fat storage—weight gain.  8)  The insulin causes the hormone leptin to be secreted.  9) Leptin when secreted by fat tissues reduces appetite and maintains current metabolism.  10) With insulin resistance, leptin resistance will also develop, and thus leptin is less effective at suppressing appetite—more weight gain.  11) On an energy restricted diet with normal carbs, leptin functions to maintain current weight and will gradually increase appetite and lower metabolism 20 to 25%.  12) Insulin and leptin resistance are the 2 main hormonal causes for obesity—there are other hormones of less importance.   13)  This excess leptin and insulin from resistance also causes the gradual rebound after significant weight has been lost. 


This brings us to the fix:  The surest way to lose weight is to go on a very low carb diet.  The old belief in fattening carbs is correct.  Carbs are fed to livestock to fatten them up; they do the same to people.  Very low carbs allows the fat in the liver to be burnt to fix the metabolic regulatory system.  On the Atkins diet, the first 2 weeks are for liver cleansing, and then the amount of carbs is gradually increased.  Once the weight goal has been reached simply limiting refined carbs and sugars will keep those pounds off.  The New Atkins Diet (2010) is designed to accomplish this, and by adding the JK short fast, the process of burning liver fat is hastened.  The comorbidities of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes will be cured in over 90% of the cases.  If this fails to occur, than I recommend adding Dr. Fung’s alternate day full fast—see http://healthfully.org/rh/id15.html.  


The Atkins diet isn’t the last word.  For the sake of health, there are several other improvements, all of which have strong science foundations.  Scientists have for the last century been asking why among primitive peoples on a Paleolithic diets, heart disease, cancer, and age related degenerative diseases are nearly unknown.  Some of them eat a high carb diet, some eat in their seasons lots of fruits and vegetables both starchy and green; some eat grains such as rice and maze, and some in the far north and the Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania rely upon animal products which are high in saturated fats and proteins.  All groups lack the Western-diet associated diseases; why? 


One reason is they don’t develop fatty liver (NAFLD) which is the starting point for high insulin that over the decades is the causal foundation for the conditions associated with the Western diet.   Paleo-societies don’t have prolonged frequent periods of elevated insulin year round.  Their pattern of eating is different.  They don’t have 3 big meals a day, but eat frequent snacks when hungry; this keeps the insulin low.  Fruits and starchy vegetables, because of their fiber content, don’t produce an insulin spike (a bad thing).  They are absorbed slowly from the digestive system because of the fiber.  An 8-ounce glass of apple juice is equivalent to eating 5 medium apples.  A can of soda has even more sugar.   Because fiber is filling the amount of whole fruits consumed is less.  In general they don’t have refined carbs.  The refined carb rich foods (and some not refined such as potatoes and rice) also produce a similar insulin spike to soda.  In a large meal with its slow stomach clearance, high blood insulin often lasts for 4 hours or longer.   Remember, the fructose and insulin spike work together to muck up the metabolic system by causing NAFLD.  There is also seasonal variation in diet—most fruits are seasonal.[2]  Most people on a Western diet eat year round sodas, fruit juices, and eat fruits daily.  This daily consumption counters the body’s process of clearing the accumulated fat in the liver.  Also causal the consumption of trans and polyunsaturated fats, its main source for most people is processed foods (which I call “manufactured foods”.)  The four main causal factors for NAFLD are fructose, elevated insulin for longer periods and more days per year, and trans and polyunsaturated fats.  Those on a Paleo diet don’t develop NAFLD; those on a Western diet do--an estimated 30% and many more are insulin resistant. 


The second difference is forced fasting, because food supplies are uncertain, and in bad years starvation occurs.  Fasting switches to fat burning, and this lower insulin promotes healing not just of the liver but other tissues. For this reasons I recommend the JK short fast; it is a tonic.  


A third advantage results from a lower level of insulin.  Insulin causes the secretion of insulin like growth factor[3], and this promotes the conversion of tumors to cancer, and stimulates their growth.  (A very low carb diet slows the growth of cancer.)  


A fourth difference with paleo diet that they don’t have our daily high consumption of fructose.  The US average is 151 pounds yearly of sweeteners.  The fructose (one-half of table sugar) is far more reactive than glucose (net about 15 fold).  It attaches to and thus damages proteins in a process called glycation.  A low-sugar diet allows the body to very gradually replace the proteins modified by fructose—and to a lesser extent by other reactive chemical. 


A fifth difference--often missed problem--comes from polyunsaturated and transfats.  While transfats have been demonstrated to cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), unfortunately the US regulations are in reality a pseudo-fix (see fats).  A main cause for CVD is the cheap trans and polyunsaturated fats.  The problem polyunsaturated fats arise from the fact that they are subject to oxidation in the body.  The double bonds on the carbon change are electron donners; that is, subject of oxidation by electrophilic agents,  especially fructose in a process called glycation, oxidation  also by carbon monoxide (its main source is tobacco smoke), and from other free radicals.  This change in structure entails that the body doesn’t have a system for their metabolism.    Given their unique shape upon oxidation, they accumulate in artery walls like transfats.  A search of Googlescholar.com for “rancidification + polyunsaturated fats” will produce dozens of journal articles, as too will other similar tags.  Transfats are not natural—but man made. They too lack a system for their metabolism. Both are artery clogging.  One last issue is that the polyunsaturated fats are high in omega-6 fatty acids.  The omega-6 partially blocks the utilization of two type of essential omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, which are cardiovascular protective.  In so doing the omega 6 are pro-inflammatory and thus a causal factor for CVD.  The main sources of the unhealthful omega 6 are the cheap vegetable oil made by the food manufactures and used in their products.  Paleolithic societies consume very little vegetable oils in their diet, while the Western diet is rich in them.  The evidence of all of these claims concerning polyunsaturated fats is found in fats.  These are the main causal factors for the health disaster of the Western diet. 


So why blame saturated fats.  One answer is “follow the money”.  In poorly designed studies, which assume saturated fats are unhealthy and polyunsaturated fats are healthy, the saturated fats were blamed for CVD and the cheap vegetable fats praised as heart health.  The currently journal literature has reversed this picture, but official pronouncement by industry funded organizations has not change--more tobacco science and marketing.   For more on these issues, go to fats & watch the documentary Fat Head 103 & Dr. Miller.    


 There are many different fasts; I have upon reviewing the literature came upon a simple fast with easy adherence.  JK short fast:  go on a 16 hour fast (7 PM until 11:00 AM) or longer, thus extending the beneficial nighttime fat burning production of ATP (the energy molecule) to midday.  At night because of not eating there is low glucose and thus insulin is not secreted by the pancreas.   The body then metabolizes fats for energy (ATP).  If hunger becomes an issue, than eat a small handful of nuts, green vegetables, or have a cup of tea or coffee.  The effect of a small portion on insulin production is minimal.


In summary the healthful summary of the Atkins diet reliance upon ketone bodies produced in the fat burning mode for the production of ATP through beta oxidation, rather than from glucose through the Krebs (citric acid) cycle.  Atkins diet is high in protein, the New Atkins diet is significantly lower to between 45 and 65 grams per day (depending on thin body weight. Lower protein because of its moderate insulin index table at bottom of page.[4]  Avoid unhealthful polyunsaturated fats, thus switch to saturated fats and monounsaturated fats.  Make your own salad dressing using olive oil or palm-kernel oil.  Of the proteins eggs and peanuts have the lowest insulin response.  Add as convenient the JK short fast to promote healthy liver and maximize fat burning.  And to increase your performance watch the videos listed at http://healthfully.org/rg/id4.html


 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


Net Carbs while on Atkins ketogenic diet—easy table by JK


Net Carbs = total carbohydrates minus fiber content.


Egg 1 = 0.4 grams

Seafood 6 oz. = 0

Meats 6 oz. = 0

Poultry 6 oz. = 0

Oils 6 oz. = 0

 

Dairy

American processed 1 slice 1.5 grams

Cheeses 1 oz. = 0.7

Cottage cheese ½ c = 5

Cream 1 T  = 0.4

Cream cheese 2 T = 1.2

Milk 1 c = 11.7 to 15

Yogurt plain 1 c = 11.6

Greek Yogurt plain 1 c =  9

 

Raw Vegetables

Avocado ½ = 2 grams

Bell pepper green ½ c= 2.2

Bell pepper red ½ c =3

Broccoli ½ c = 1

Cabbage shredded ½ c = 1.1

Celery stalk = 1

Cauliflower florets ½ c = 1.4

Cucumber ½ c = 1

Nuts

Almonds 24 = 2.5

Brazil 6 = 1.4

Cashews 2 T = 5.1

Mixed nuts 2 T = 2

Peanuts 2 T = 1.4

Pecans 1 oz. = 1.2

Walnuts 1 oz. 1.2

 

Green beans ½ c = 2

Lettice 1 c = 0.36Olives black 5 = 0.7

Olives green 5 = 0.0

Onion 2 tbs. = 1

Spinach 1 c = 0.2

Squash summer ½ c    2.6

Tomato 1 med = 3.0

Tomato juice 1c = 8

For those off

the induction

(ketogenic) phase

 

Fruits

Apple med = 8

Banana med = 30

Blueberries ½ c = 9

Dates dried 1 oz = 21

Fig dried med = 6

Grapes 1 c = 26

Grapefruit ½ = 9

Melon cantaloupe 1 c  = 12

Orange navel med =15

Peach med = 15

Pear med = 20

Strawberry 5 lg = 5

Legumes

Black bean home cooked 1 c = 8

Canned baked beans 1c = 36

Kidney home cooked 1c = 11

Pinto bean home cooked = 25

Soybean white 1c =10

Vegetables not  leafy

Beets steamed 1c  = 13

Carrots steamed 1c = 8

Corn on cob med steamed 15

Eggplant 1c = 5

Olive cured 7 = 1

Onion 1 c = 12

Peas 1 c = 14

Potato med with skin = 26

 

Snow pea ½ c cooked = 2.7

Squash acorn 1 c = 21

Squash zucchini 1c = 3

Sweet potato med = 20


 


To calculate from the food label simply subtract fiber from total carbohydrates

On the Atkins website (http://files.atkins.com/1501_CarbCounter_Online.pdf) is an extensive table of net carbs.  For simplicity the food label on products can be used, simply subtract fiber from carbohydrates to get an approximate value.  Remember that food manufacturers add sugar to nearly every product plus many of them have various forms of starch as filler and thickening agent (starch is pure glucose). 



[1] Pharma has added hypertension and high cholesterol-triglycerides.  This is more of pharma’s marketing, and is irrelevant as explained in Cholesterol Myth and its sequel.  Hypertension is a sign of atherosclerosis; it can only be healed by body and diet. 

[2] In the tropic there are dry seasons, thus forcing fruits to be seasonal, while in temperate region it is temperature. 

[3]The IGF axis has been shown to play roles in the promotion of cell proliferation and the inhibition of cell death (apoptosis) …  IGF-1 stimulates growth of both prostate and breast cancer cells [and inhibits immune system destruction]” Wiki.

[4]  Several amino acids (derived from protein during digestion) stimulate the release of insulin by the pancreas. 



For Net Carbs Counter Atkins website   http://files.atkins.com/1501_CarbCounter_Online.pdf


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkins_diet  4/2015  --  with minor modifications by jk  


Summary of diet


The four phases


There are four phases of the Atkins Diet: induction, ongoing weight loss, pre-maintenance and lifetime maintenance.


Induction


Induction is the most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Two weeks are recommended for this phase. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Carbohydrate intake is limited to less than 20 net grams per day (grams of carbohydrates minus grams of fiber, sugar alcohols, or glycerin); of this amount, 12 to 15 net grams must come in the form of salad greens and other vegetables such as broccolispinachpumpkincauliflower, turnipstomatoes, and asparagus. A total of 54 grams of vegetables are allowed by Atkins (but not legumes, since they are too starchy for the induction phase). The allowed foods include 4 to 6 ounces per meal of any meatpoultryfishshellfish, fowl, or eggs; up to 4 ounces (113 g) of hard or semi-soft cheese such as cheddar cheese; most salad vegetables; other low-carbohydrate vegetables; and butterolive oil and vegetable oils. Drinking eight glasses of water per day is a requirement during this phase. Alcoholic beverages are not allowed during Induction.[18] Caffeine is allowed in moderation so long as it does not cause cravings or low blood sugar. If a caffeine addiction is evident, it is best to avoid it until later phases of the diet.[18] A daily multivitamin with minerals is also recommended.[18] A normal amount of food on Induction is around 20 grams of naturally occurring sugars from vegetables (or net carb), at least 100 grams of fat, and about 18 ounces of protein or 150 grams.[1]


The Induction phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss — reports of losses of 5 to 10 pounds per week are not uncommon when Induction is combined with daily exercise.[citation needed] Many Atkins followers make use of Ketostix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics, but current recommendations discourage use due to inaccurate readings. These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning phase, but are not always accurate for non-diabetic users. Other indicators of ketosis include a metallic taste in the mouth, or the sweet smell of ketones on breath or sweat.[3]


Ongoing weight loss


The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of small, incremental increases in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. The target daily carbohydrate intake increases each week by 5 net grams, a very low amount of carbohydrate. A goal in this "ongoing" phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing" for the individual and to determine which foods an individual may incorporate without triggering cravings. This phase of the Atkins' diet lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight.


During the first week of Ongoing Weight Loss, Atkins dieters are instructed to add a small serving of nuts or seeds. The next week, one should follow the "carbohydrate ladder" and add berries. The ladder has 9 rungs and foods should be added in that order. One can skip a rung if one does not intend to include that food group in one's permanent way of eating. The rungs for legumes, high-carbohydrate fruits, starchy vegetables, and whole grains are not added until the maintenance phase. They are then incorporated in modest amounts.


The rungs are as follows:


  • Foundation vegetables    Nuts and seeds    Berries    Whole milk and yogurt    Legumes    Tomato juice

  • Other fruits    Starchy vegetables   Whole grains

    Alcohol is also permitted, but is no longer a specific rung of the ladder. Low-carbohydrate drinks such as spirits and dry wines are preferred, and must of course be included in the daily carb allowance.

    Pre-maintenance

    Daily net carbohydrates intake is increased again this time by 10 grams each week from the latter groupings, and the key goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance". This is the maximum number of carbohydrates a dieter can eat each day without gaining weight. This may well be above the level of carbohydrates that induce ketosis on a testing stick. As a result, it is not necessary to maintain a positive ketosis test long term.

    Dieters may be able to add some of the forbidden carbs back into their diet once a week. In this phase, according to the Atkins Diet, one's body is beginning to lose the protection of ketosis as one prepares for the last phase which is Lifetime Maintenance.

    Dieters are encouraged to continue to drink at least eight glasses of water per day and to increase their daily carbohydrate count by 10 grams each week as long as they continue to lose weight. The Atkins plan recommends that once dieters reach their goal weight and are able to maintain that level for a month or so, then they can increase their daily carb consumption by another 10 grams to see if that is possible without gaining. If one gains weight at that level, the plan recommends that one drops back levels of carbohydrates in 10 grams increments. It may take several weeks to find one's individual tipping point.

    Lifetime maintenance

    This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasized, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight. 

    Common misconceptions over the New Atkins Diet: 

    Many people believe that Atkins Diet promotes unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses.  The diet does not impose caloric restrictions but places limits on proteins and is not a license to gorge.  Another common misconception is that the low-carb induction phase continues throughout the diet.  Atkins states that a dieter can safely stay at the Induction Phase for several months if the person has a lot of weight to lose.[51] Induction, however, is merely a stage to get the body used to fat; and cure cravings for high carbohydrate foods. Gradually, through the stages of the eating plan, carbohydrate levels are raised, though carbs are still significantly below USDA norms.  The third misconception is based on the myth that saturated fats and cholesterol are bad.  That has been thoroughly rebutted though not laid to rest.  Evidence shows that carbs (especially sugars) are the culprit in the obesity epidemic.  Based on this myth the Atkins Diet by many is considered unhealthy.  

    End of Wikipedia article  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkins_diet  4/2015

    More on Atkins diet

    A 2012 study done at Boston Children's Hospital compared 3 diets: a very low carbohydrate diet (the Atkins Diet) with a low fat, high carbohydrate diet, and a low glycemic index diet [low refined carbs, potatoes, and rice]. Reduction of the resting metabolic rate as a result of dieting, a key factor in the failures of dieting, was the least in the very low carbohydrate diet [Atkins]. In addition, measured total energy expenditure in the patients was the highest in the very low carbohydrate diet, suggesting that a very low carbohydrate diet [Atkins] would be the most likely to produce a sustained weight loss. 

    Note:  the crap about heart disease is based upon pharma’s cholesterol-saturated fats myths.  Both have been thoroughly refuted in the literature, but pharma’s KOLs ignore the critics, as dose corporate media.  Read the following links:  Cholesterol Myth, Cholesterol Myth, source History,  The great cholesterol myth Kendrick. 

    JK’s advice:  Preferred foods are those with a low insulin index (a better gauge than glycemic load and glycemic index) see table below.  Fructose is the worse of sugars because it causes the most tissue damage through glycation—15 times the amount per gram compared to glucose.  Exercise prior to and subsequent a meal will lower serum glucose and thus insulin.  Small meals have less a glucose-insulin spike.  Avoid polyunsaturated fats because they are subject to rancidification in the body and they block the utilization of healthful omega-3 fatty acids.  Watch University of California Television the Complete Skinny, University of Montana’s President’s Address on Bad Pharma, and read 8 page Dietary Essentials, with tables.       


Atkins plan is "not a license to gorge," but rather promotes eating protein until satiated. The rules for the induction phase have changed since the first printing of Atkin's Diet Revolution, in which all carbohydrates were counted the same. Today's version [New Atkins diet] of the diet differentiates between carbohydrates, and counts only "net carbs" toward the daily total. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of 'net' carbohydrates permitted per day. The Net Carbs number reflects the grams of carbohydrate that are said to significantly impact blood sugar level.  Atkins states that a dieter can safely stay at the Induction Phase for several months if the person has a lot of weight to lose. 


 


At http://www.atkins.com/.there are recipes, products, apps and tools.  Use the Atkins cab counter.   Remember, the diet starts in the grocery store.  The book is available on Amazon for $3.50 used and $9.32 new.


For Net Carbs Counter Atkins website http://files.atkins.com/1501_CarbCounter_Online.pdf

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^



[1] This is one point where I part from the diet, and for good reasons.  Proteins stimulate the production of insulin, meat and fish have an insulin index of 51 and 59 respectively, per 240 calorie portion bread is rated at 100.  Insulin response  slow progress, therefore  I recommend but 40 to 70 grams depending on thin-body weight.  For confirmation watch the lectures by Dr. Jason Fung at video.



JK’s guide for Atkins Maintenance Phase Diet




 


Summary of New Atkins Diet


Short version:


Induction phase


ALLOWED:  You can eat a normal amount of food on first 2 weeks but limited to  20 grams of net carbs from green vegetables (net carbs, entails subtracting  grams of fiber from total carbs), at least 100 grams of fat, and about 18 ounces of protein or 150 grams (1.25 lbs. of meat).  A total of 54 low carbohydrate vegetables are allowed. also 4 to 6 ounces per meal of any meat, poultry, fish or eggs; up to 4 ounces (113 g) of hard or semi-soft cheese such as cheddar cheese, vitamin pill.  Butter and vegetable oils [should restrict to oils high in polyunsaturated fats].   NOT ALLOWED:  Max net carbs 20 grams per day (grams of carbohydrates minus grams of fiber, sugar alcohols, or glycerin), no ethanol.


Ongoing weight loss phase


Add small services of nuts or seeds in first week, then in subsequent weeks berries, whole milk and plain yogurt, legumes, tomato juices, other fruits, starchy vegetables, whole grains (not commercial brown bread) – moderate amounts of low-carbohydrate drinks such as dry wine may be added in this phase.  [Limit portions of tomato juice, starchy vegetables, and whole grains, and avoid whole wheat bread it is functionally equivalent to white bread as to insulin response.  The Atkins diet recommends regular exercise.]


Pre-maintenance


Once weight target is reached, the daily intake of carbs is increased by 10 grams per week to find the level where weight is not gained.  [Continue to limit refined carbs to small portions]


Lifetime maintenance


Continue on diet, and continue to avoid sugar added foods. 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


The four phases  (The longer version):


There are four phases of the Atkins Diet: induction, ongoing weight loss, pre-maintenance and lifetime maintenance.


Induction


Induction is the most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Two weeks are recommended for this phase. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Carbohydrate intake is limited to less than 20 net grams per day (grams of carbohydrates minus grams of fiber, sugar alcohols, or glycerin); of this amount, 12 to 15 net grams must come in the form of salad greens and other vegetables such as broccolispinachpumpkincauliflower, turnipstomatoes, and asparagus. A total of 54 grams of vegetables are allowed by Atkins (but not legumes, since they are too starchy for the induction phase). The allowed foods include 4 to 6 ounces per meal of any meatpoultryfishshellfish, fowl, or eggs; up to 4 ounces (113 g) of hard or semi-soft cheese such as cheddar cheese; most salad vegetables; other low-carbohydrate vegetables; and butterolive oil and vegetable oils. Drinking eight glasses of water per day is a requirement during this phase. Alcoholic beverages are not allowed during Induction.[18] Caffeine is allowed in moderation so long as it does not cause cravings or low blood sugar. If a caffeine addiction is evident, it is best to avoid it until later phases of the diet.[18] A daily multivitamin with minerals is also recommended.[18] A normal amount of food on Induction is around 20 grams of naturally occurring sugars from vegetables (or net carb), at least 100 grams of fat, and about 18 ounces of protein or 150 grams.[1]


The Induction phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss — reports of losses of 5 to 10 pounds per week are not uncommon when Induction is combined with daily exercise.[citation needed] Many Atkins followers make use of Ketostix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics, but current recommendations discourage use due to inaccurate readings. These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning phase, but are not always accurate for non-diabetic users. Other indicators of ketosis include a metallic taste in the mouth, or the sweet smell of ketones on breath or sweat.[3]


Ongoing weight loss


The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of small, incremental increases in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. The target daily carbohydrate intake increases each week by 5 net grams, a very low amount of carbohydrate. A goal in this "ongoing" phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing" for the individual and to determine which foods an individual may incorporate without triggering cravings. This phase of the Atkins' diet lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight.  [Atkins recommends a vigorous exercise program because of its many  nhealth benefits and long-term mood elevation.]


During the first week of Ongoing Weight Loss, Atkins dieters are instructed to add a small serving of nuts or seeds. The next week, one should follow the "carbohydrate ladder" and add berries. The ladder has 9 rungs and foods should be added in that order. One can skip a rung if one does not intend to include that food group in one's permanent way of eating. The rungs for legumes, high-carbohydrate fruits, starchy vegetables, and whole grains are not added until the maintenance phase. They are then incorporated in modest amounts.


The rungs are as follows:


  • Foundation vegetables    Nuts and seeds    Berries    Whole milk and yogurt    Legumes    Tomato juice

  • Other fruits    Starchy vegetables   Whole grains

    Alcohol is also permitted, but is no longer a specific rung of the ladder. Low-carbohydrate drinks such as spirits and dry wines are preferred, and must of course be included in the daily carb allowance.

    Pre-maintenance

    Daily net carbohydrates intake is increased again this time by 10 grams each week from the latter groupings, and the key goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance". This is the maximum number of carbohydrates a dieter can eat each day without gaining weight. This may well be above the level of carbohydrates that induce ketosis on a testing-stick.  As a result, it is not necessary to maintain a positive ketosis test long term.

    Dieters may be able to add some of the forbidden carbs back into their diet once a week. In this phase, according to the Atkins Diet, one's body is beginning to lose the protection of ketosis as one prepares for the last phase which is Lifetime Maintenance.  [Continue with your exercise routine.]

    Dieters are encouraged to continue to drink at least eight glasses of water per day and to increase their daily carbohydrate count by 10 grams each week as long as they continue to lose weight. The Atkins plan recommends that once dieters reach their goal weight and are able to maintain that level for a month or so, then they can increase their daily carb consumption by another 10 grams to see if that is possible without gaining. If one gains weight at that level, the plan recommends that one drops back levels of carbohydrates in 10 grams increments. It may take several weeks to find one's individual tipping point.

    Lifetime maintenance

    This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasized, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight.  Set up a routine of vigorous exercise since it is a general health tonic and mood elevator.

    Common misconceptions over the New Atkins Diet: 

    Many people believe that Atkins Diet promotes unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses.  The diet does not impose caloric restrictions but places limits on proteins and is not a license to gorge.  Another common misconception is that the low-carb induction phase continues throughout the diet.  Atkins states that a dieter can safely stay at the Induction Phase for several months if the person has a lot of weight to lose.[51] Induction, however, is merely a stage to get the body used to fat; and cure cravings for high carbohydrate foods. Gradually, through the stages of the eating plan, carbohydrate levels are raised, though carbs are still significantly below USDA norms.  The third misconception is based on the myth that saturated fats and cholesterol are bad.  That has been thoroughly rebutted though not laid to rest.  Evidence shows that carbs (especially sugars) are the culprit in the obesity epidemic.  Based on this myth the Atkins Diet by many is considered unhealthy.  

    End of Wikipedia article  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkins_diet  4/2015

    More on Atkins diet

    A 2012 study done at Boston Children's Hospital compared 3 diets: a very low carbohydrate diet (the Atkins Diet) with a low fat, high carbohydrate diet, and a low glycemic index diet [low refined carbs, potatoes, and rice]. Reduction of the resting metabolic rate as a result of dieting, a key factor in the failures of dieting, was the least in the very low carbohydrate diet [Atkins]. In addition, measured total energy expenditure in the patients was the highest in the very low carbohydrate diet, suggesting that a very low carbohydrate diet [Atkins] would be the most likely to produce a sustained weight loss. 

    Note:  the crap about heart disease is based upon pharma’s cholesterol-saturated fats myths.  Both have been thoroughly refuted in the literature, but pharma’s KOLs ignore the critics, as dose corporate media.  Read the following links:  Cholesterol Myth, Cholesterol Myth, source History,  The great cholesterol myth Kendrick. 

    JK’s advice:  Preferred foods are those with a low insulin index (a better gauge than glycemic load and glycemic index) see table below.  Fructose is the worse of sugars because it causes the most tissue damage through glycation—15 times the amount per gram compared to glucose.  Exercise prior to and subsequent a meal will lower serum glucose and thus insulin.  Small meals have less a glucose-insulin spike.  Avoid polyunsaturated fats because they are subject to rancidification in the body and they block the utilization of healthful omega-3 fatty acids.  Watch University of California Television the Complete Skinny, University of Montana’s President’s Address on Bad Pharma, and read 8 page Dietary Essentials, with tables.       


Atkins plan is "not a license to gorge," but rather promotes eating protein until satiated. The rules for the induction phase have changed since the first printing of Atkin's Diet Revolution, in which all carbohydrates were counted the same. Today's version [New Atkins diet] of the diet differentiates between carbohydrates, and counts only "net carbs" toward the daily total. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of 'net' carbohydrates permitted per day. The Net Carbs number reflects the grams of carbohydrate that are said to significantly impact blood sugar level.  Atkins states that a dieter can safely stay at the Induction Phase for several months if the person has a lot of weight to lose. 


 


At http://www.atkins.com/.there are recipes, products, apps and tools.  Use the Atkins cab counter.   Remember, the diet starts in the grocery store.  The book is available on Amazon for $3.50 used and $9.32 new.


For Net Carbs Counter Atkins website http://files.atkins.com/1501_CarbCounter_Online.pdf


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^


JK’s guide for Atkins Maintenance Phase Diet


Dietary Recommendations—heart, T2D, and weight loss


Increase

Decrease

Avoid

Protein, fat, fiber.  Breakfast protein mix, fish, nut, cheese, cottage cheese, plain yogurt, leafy vegetables, yam, egg, some whole grain products[2], beans­2.

Refined carbohydrates. White and whole wheat4 products, rice, and carbohydrates in general.  Meats & poultry unless free ranging[3], portions of fruits especially bananas, grapes, raisins, and dates[4].

Sugar added foods[5], instant breakfast cereals.  Large portions of carbs and fruit, fruit juices[6], fructose, rice, breads, potatoes, refined carbs, and polyunsaturated and trans fats[7]. 

Vinegar,[8] high fiber cereal, protein, animal fats, lard, & butter are best, followed by palm kernel, coconut, and olive oils. [9]

Fried foods (unless high in saturated fat), large portions of food with high glycemic index, processed foods.[10]

Lunch meats unless cooked[11], corn[12], most crackers, chain restaurant, soy products[13], vegetable oil.  All GMOs12


 


Sugars without fructose:  barley malt, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, dextran, dextrose, diastatic malt, diatase, ethyl maltol, galactose, glucose, glucose solids, lactose, malt syrup, maltodextrin, maltose, rice syrup, source


For more on diet and related topics  and a condensed version


4 Diets depend on needs


1) Healthy diet: For those in good health and normal weight.  The goal is to keep serum fructose & insulin low, thus avoid added sugar, easily digestible starches.  Small meals, fiber, fats, and proteins along with increased physical excursion all lower insulin.  Low insulin requires low serum glucose and moderate proteins.  Low rate of glycation requires very low fructose (see p 3, #4).  At least 3 days a week keep carbs to about 20% of total calories; for an average male that would be 500 calories and 400 calories for the average women.  There is about 3.5 calories per digestible gram of carbs, or 143 and 115 grams respectively.  The jk short fast once weekly promotes a healthy liver.     


2) Weight loss diet of less than 20%:   Daily the jk short fast and 20% carbs.  If progress is slow, then add the New Atkins Diet. The fast cleanses your liver and Atkins accelerates progress in the fat burning mode to cure NAFLD[14], IR, and MeS. 


3) T2D diet for those on one drug:  Daily JK short fast and the new Atkins type diet, and monitor your plasma glucose so as to reduce dependence on your drug.  If after 6 month this hasn’t cured T2D then replace the JK short fast with full alternate-day fasting.  Watch Dr. Janson Fung explain the issues on insulin and diabetes and alternate day fasting diet.[15]   The fasting following bariatric surgery cures 90% of those with T2D in the first 2 weeks; they eat small low-carb meals. 


4) Severe T2D and morbid obesity: Follow a low insulin diet and alternate-day fasting.  T2D is a progressive disease treated with a drug to lower glucose, then more drugs and then insulin injections.  It is caused by diet and can be cured with diet.  The fast following bariatric surgery cures over 80% of T2D in the first few weeks, before major weight loss.

JK short fast:  go on a 16 hour fast (7 PM until 11:00 AM) or longer, thus extending the beneficial nighttime fat burning production of ATP (the energy molecule) to midday.  At night because of not eating there is low glucose and thus insulin is not secreted by the pancreas.   The body then metabolizes fat for energy (ATP).  If hunger becomes an issue than eat a small handful of nuts, green vegetables, or low-carb power bar to kill pangs; the effect of a small portion on insulin production is minimal.  (Another version of the fast is to consume just 20% of calorie low carbs.  Thus if on a non-fasting day you eat 2,500 calories, then on the fasting day the limit is 500 calories.  Choose whichever fast has the best compliance.)  Always select low carb, fat-burning foods.



[1] This is one point where I part from the diet, and for good reasons.  Proteins stimulate the production of insulin, meat and fish have an insulin index of 51 and 59 respectively, per 240 calorie portion bread is rated at 100.  Insulin response  slow progress, therefore  I recommend but 40 to 70 grams depending on thin-body weight.  For confirmation watch the lectures by Dr. Jason Fung at video.

[2] Most whole wheat breads are comparable to white bread as to glycemic index (GI) and insulin index (IL) (see  table Part 3), plus they have phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate (IP6)):  Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to important minerals, such as calcium, iron, and zinc” Wiki--binding prevents their absorption. Phytic acid is also in beans, peanuts, soybean, brown rice, oat meal, corn, and nuts. White flour lacks phytic acid.  Sugars are added to mask the rancid taste of phytic acid-- Lustig, Fat Chance p 133. 

[3] Cattle are fed a diet of GMO grains.  Certified Organic has been outsourced to companies most of whom do sham inspections. 

[4] High sugar fruits with high glucose and insulin indexes. 

[5] In 2015 “Sugar added” is to be listed under sugar in food labels.  For current labels, how much has been added depends on ingredients, vegetables have natural low levels of sugar, fruits higher. There are 56 different sweeteners used in processed foods.   If in doubt, look at the list of ingredients for sweeteners.  Ingredients are listed in order of percentage by weight.      

[6] Fruit juices having most of the fiber removed produce a serum glucose increase comparable to like amount of soda. 

[7] Polyunsaturated fats undergo in the body unhealthful rancidification, and they are high in omega-6 fatty acids which block the healthful conversion of omega-3 fatty acids.  Tran-fats cause CVD; and US regulation are just a pseudo fix—see fats.

[8] Vinegar reduces insulin resistance and increase satiation. 

[9] These oils are lowest in polyunsaturated fats, including omega 6 fatty acids And because they are from trees they are free of GMOs. 

[10]  Restaurants used trans-fats oils for taste and cost. Processed foods use trans-fats (see #28), sugar, GMOs, and chemicals. 

[11] Given the broken food-inspection process, they pose a major risk factor, which has been grossly under reported in our corporate media.  A 2008 study in France showed that their rate of food poisoning was 1/4th the US rate

[12] Avoid because of high insulin index, and they have a GMO gene that causes corn to produces a pesticide—same for other crops such as canola, soya bean and others.  Testing and review is a regulatory façade:  and the companies do tobacco science to “prove” the changes in the crops are beneficial, and the FDA is business friendly. There is very little true science on GMOs.

[13] “Allergy to soy is common…sources of phytoestrogens… ligands have the ability to bind to human estrogen sites… association between brain atrophy and consumption of tofu meals… raw soy flour is known to cause pancreatic cancer in rats…. Gout sufferers limit consumption of soy products” Wiki.  Likely also a testosterone mimic.  Sex hormone mimics contribute to obesity through their effect on fat storage. There are many sources for these mimics such as softeners added to plastics.  These mimics are likely a factor in obesity, early puberty, height gain & cancer.  Science is spotty but sufficient for Scientific American to warn about mimics repeatedly.     

[14] Fasting occurs with bariatric surgery and has been used to provide strong evidence for the dietary fix to T2D.  Similar results have been obtain from this surgery as to the cure of NAFLD.  “resolution of NASH in around 80% of patients”[20]  Wiki and.

[15] Watch Dr. Fung explain how the body switches from glucose to fat burning.  Burning excess fat in the liver to promotes overall metabolic health.  The Western diet causes fatty liver. This is caused is by carbs, fructose, which causes insulin resistance.



Pharma being against the healthful extreme low carb diet, has used a life-threatening acute condition found in diabetics from over medication, and argued that the same could occur for those on a very low carb diet.  However, this doesn't occur, and the level of blood glucose caused by over medicating is about 1/3rd the level of serum glucose for those on a ketogenic diet.  This is just one of many, many examples of bad pharma .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketone_bodies

Ketosis /kɨˈtsɨs/ is a metabolic state where most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis where blood glucose provides most of the energy. It is characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 millimolar with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]).

During the usual overnight fast the body's metabolism naturally switches into ketosis, and will switch back to glycolysis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet, and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for intractable epilepsy.[1][6] In glycolysis higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8][9]   Ketosis can be induced when a ketogenic diet is followed for more than 3 days. This induced ketosis is sometimes called nutritional ketosis.[10]   [This is the best way to manage epilepsy, and it has been known since the 1930s, but is not in pharma’s financial interest.   [Warning  (JK):  With major head trauma the doctors following guidelines and KOLs will put the patent on an anti-seizure, even though they haven’t had one.  Seizure can be brought on by drugs including alcohol and those to treat ALS and MS, meningitis and other cerebral infections, pork tapeworm.  The doctor is likely to prescribe an anticonvulsant medication, even without a seizure or just a minor seizure.  People who sleep more will have fewer seizures. All the drugs given by pharma are major tranquilizers, which haven’t been shown in clinical trial to significantly prevent seizures for the typical patient.  They lower quality of life.  Four of my friends of mine have fallen victim this treatment, all of whom have gained weight and were in a mental cloud.  Of the three who discontinued the medication years later, none have had a subsequent seizure.]   

Ketone bodies are weakly acidic, but acid-base homeostasis in the blood is normally maintained. Most commonly, ketoacidosis is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), resulting from increased fat metabolism due to a shortage of insulin. It is associated primarily with type I diabetes, and may result in a diabetic coma if left untreated. [The ketone bodies during DKA is six fold greater than under an Atkins Diet.]

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting) or carbohydrate restriction for cells of the body to use as energy instead of glucose. Though termed bodies, they are not bodies but molecules.  Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third (acetone) is a degradation breakdown product of acetoacetic acid.   Ketone bodies are picked up by cells and converted back into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long chain fatty acids, which cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier.  Ketone bodies are produced  from acetylCoQ (see ketogenesis) mainly in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes (liver tissue) when carbohydrates are so scarce that energy must be obtained from breaking down fatty acids

After the diet has been changed to lower blood glucose for 3 days, the brain gets 25% of its energy from ketone bodies.[5] After about 4 days, this goes up to 70%[citation needed] (during the initial stages the brain does not burn ketones, since they are an important substrate for lipid synthesis in the brain). Furthermore, ketones produced from omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cognitive deterioration in old age.

Acetone is produced by spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate,[8] meaning this ketone body will break down if it is not used for energy and be removed as waste or converted to pyruvate.[3] This "use it or lose it" factor may contribute to the weight loss found in ketogenic diets. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA, so it is excreted in the urine, or (as a consequence of its high vapor pressure) exhaled unless first converted to Pyruvate. Acetone is responsible for the characteristic "Sweet & fruity" odor of the breath of persons in ketoacidosis.[9]

Individuals who follow a low-carbohydrate diet will also develop ketosis, this induced ketosis is sometimes called nutritional ketosis, but the level of ketone body concentrations are on the order of 0.5-5 mM whereas the pathological ketoacidosis is 15-25 mM caused by type 1 diabetes and failure to administer insulin.   


[1]  An article in the American journal of diseases of children, 1924 reported positive results of very low carb diet as too an 1885 book.  Current literature places major improvement in 90% of cases for children, and about 50% for adults.   There is no longer any doubt that the KD is effective in ameliorating seizures in patients, especially children, with medically refractory epilepsy (Vining, 1999; Neal et al., 2008; Freeman et al., 2009). After its introduction in 1920, the KD was used as a first or second-line treatment for severe childhood epilepsy.  Recent years have witnessed a remarkable surge in research on the KD, including basic science efforts as well as clinical protocols and trials (Kim do and Rho, 2008; Neal et al.,2008; Kessler et al., 2011). The KD has now become an integral part of the armamentarium of most major epilepsy centers throughout the world (Kossoff and McGrogan, 2005)” 2012.  The use of KD (ketogenic diet) for AD & other neurological conditions found in supra.

Enter supporting content here

INTERNAL SITE SEARCH ENGINE by Google