What went wrong, the fix: when to eat and what to eat
other mammals our weight, appetite, and metabolism is controlled by several dozen hormones.
The most important of these hormones are insulin and leptin. The long-term obese and overweight have a damaged liver caused by too much of the sugar
fructose. Fructose is only metabolized in the liver. It is a net 15-times more
reactive than glucose, where it damages the liver by a process called glycation, the random bonding to proteins. This process is causal for 1) fatty liver, an excess 2-3 pounds
of fat stored there; 2) insulin resistant, which entails that the level of insulin
is higher than normal for the amount of blood glucose (sugar). Since insulin
causes the uptake from the blood of glucose for metabolism in cells, insulin also at the same time causes the cessation of
fat metabolism and its storage as triglycerides. Thus with higher than normal
insulin there is a gradual increase in stored fat. Insulin resistance and fatty liver causes the regulatory systems to
make that person likely to have steady (yearly) weight gain. If this excess fat
accumulates for over a year or 2, the adipose (fat) tissue through its regulatory hormones will reset to its new level of fat. Their energy restricted diet fails: hormones slow metabolism and increase
appetite to restore fat its prior amount. See Dr. Fung’s The Complete Guide to Fasting, p. 101-6, on The Biggest Losers (TV show), who regained their weight.
insulin resistance and fatty liver must be reverse, and this requires a very low insulin diet.
This diet metabolizes the excess fat without causing the regulatory hormones secreted by the fat tissue to hinder this
process by reducing metabolism at least 25% (typically around 2-months on a low-calorie diet) and thereby creating a feeling
that if that person ate more he would feel better and have more energy. We also
have inherited the mammalian system for having more energy to hunt and gather food when there is no food. To utilize this system we merely have to go without eating. Short
term fasting, merely skipping breakfast and being on a low-carb, moderate-protein diet will succeed; If not than alternate
day fasting works. Fasting extends the period of fat burning (see graph) and
eventually will cure insulin resistance and fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Merely
low carbs (ketogenic diet) often fails because incretin hormones in response to proteins causes insulin to be secreted. Thus fasting is an essential part of the low-carb fix.
Once the goal is obtained most will only have to limit fructose to under 20 grams a day, the lower the better.
At http://healthfully.org/rc/id21.html are low-carb foods & low-insulin tables, dietary recommendations, and 5 diets according to goals; evidence
for and advice on fasting at /rh/id13.html; fasting is easy at /rjk/id5.html; on fructose and glycation at /rjk/id1.html; which fats are good for you; and description of documentaries and lectures with link to YouTube at /rh/id7.html, which will confirm what I have just presented, and more.