good diet practices:
don’t eat after 7 PM and skip breakfast, or longer if progress is slow.
Low net carbs
To lower insulin
spike when eating refined carbs include a liberal dose of fat (incretin hormones stimulate insulin release, thus pasta has
a lower insulin index than meats, fish or poultry).
to and subsequent to eating, thus lowering blood glucose and thus insulin
have lower insulin spike and quicker clearance from gastro-intestinal track
buy carbs that are high in resistant starches (see /rh/id3.html) such as from legumes and fiber-rich green-leafy vegetables
saturated & monounsaturated fats to supply the energy that carbs were supplying & greater satiety (avoid polyunsaturated
because of rancidification in our body).
the products of the food manufactures; for they are have added sugar, refined carbs, polyunsaturated and trans-fats, and chemical
meal-time eat slowly and stop before stuffed.
handy small low carb snacks to kill hunger pangs, and limit size if high in protein.
LINKS: The best source on what to eat for health, for diet, and related topics
is at Concise. In the rh section are articles which
lay out the evidence for what is found there and dja has journal articles on rancid
fats, diet, etc. Important are Part 5 on supplements, Part 6 which covers many of the
topics here, and Part 10 on the New Atkins low-carb
diet. The large Videos library with brief
descriptions has links to YouTube. It confirms the claims here--and other health
topic. The links to ABC, CBC, BBC, ABC again national networks;
they expose what U.S. media hides. The leading authority with results is Dr. Fung of Toronto; his videos on
YouTube are on fasting, T2D, fats, & insulin. I highly recommend his book “The Obesity Code: Unlocking The Secretes of Weight Loss”
(a book on fasting is coming out in October of 2016). For those with T2D, for
a minimal fee your he will work with your doctor, click on the link to his clinic.
body & food basics
Adipocytes (lipocytes) fat cells compose adipose tissue &
secrete hormones resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.
ATP, Adenosine TriPhosphate (adenosine with 3 phosphate molecules (PO4) attached), transfers chemical
energy within the cell through the loss of one of its phosphate groups. In the
mitochondria ADP returns to the high
energy state ATP 3(PO4) through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates
& fats. ATP provides the energy
for over 90% of the biosynthesis: for muscle contraction, hormones, collagen,
etc. and for intra and intercellular active transport.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes cigarettes and a high sugar
diet which cause endothelial
dysfunction of the artery walls. These cells permit pathogens
to colonize in the artery walls to cause inflammation,
atherosclerosis, and CVD.
fiber, fructose, glucose-glycogen, starch, sucrose, lactose, net carbs (total carbs minus fiber):
fiber, roughage, the carbohydrate component not broken down by digestive enzymes, but some is by gut bacteria. Fiber has more than ten sugar units. It lowers the insulin
spike when consumed with refined carbs.
Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide found in fruits. Main sources are the disaccharide sucrose, fruits, and high
fructose corn syrup. It is metabolized in the liver into either glucose, or fat which when insulin is stored there to cause fatty liver.
Also fructose is 7.5 more reactive then glucose and by glycation damages the
Glucose a monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in humans 1-2-lbs
is stored as long-chain glycogen a
backup energy source stored in muscles, fat, and liver cells. Glucose is as one
half of sucrose, and is also obtained from the hydrolysis of the digestible starches.
Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.
Starch is long chains of glucose units. This polysaccharide is produced mostly by green plants for energy storage.
Sucrose, table sugar, produced by plants; it is the
readily hydrolyzed disaccharide consisting of fructose and glucose.
Glycation: a process where a monosaccharide (simple
sugar) randomly attaches to proteins or lipid; this adversely affects their functions, thus glycation is a major cause of
chronic age-related diseases.
combination of diabetes and obesity that afflicts those on the Western diet—a recently coined term.
(Free Fatty acids and triglycerides): up to 24 carbon molecules with an organic acid or glycerol molecule on end.
Incretin: class of hormones secreted by the stomach and intestines which causes insulin secretion
and produces satiety.
Insulin: a gateway hormone is produced by the pancreas.
Its main function is to have cells absorb glucose and store fat. Cells already loaded with glucose, to prevent toxic level resist the message by insulin to absorb more
glucose. Insulin also regulates other enzymes and hormones including leptin. Low insulin is the cause of type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Insulin also promotes the storage in amino acid, and thus we secret insulin by the incretin system in response to proteins.
Insulin resistance (IR): a condition of higher than normal amount of blood insulin to lower blood
glucose due to a diminished response to insulin by various tissues. The pancreas
then releases even more insulin to lower blood glucose. IR is the condition which
causes the fat accumulation in the liver and pancreas and obesity, and all their comorbidities.
diet (very low carbohydrate diet): it forces the body to rely upon just fats to convert ADP to
ATP to cause weight loss without restricting
calories. It is named refers to the
ketones produced in this metabolic natural process.
Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs): people who rise to top positions in
their area of expertise. In fields relevant to business some of these people
violate the standards of science to produce and spread business-favorable spin, and are handsome rewarded for their services. The term is used in that sense of bad conduct.
Pharma has used KOLs along with regulatory capture to produce a drug disaster while selling it to medical students,
physicians, politicians, and the public as cutting edge science.
Leptin: produced by fat cells is in part regulated
by insulin. Leptin in the brain suppresses appetite and it also regulates metabolism. Leptin is responsible for the 25% reduction in metabolism plus increased appetite
that eventually occurs during an energy-restricted diet. Leptin functions to
maintain fat storage and to restore weight even years later.
are a group of naturally occurring fat like molecules including waxes, sterols, fats, phospholipids, and others.
Metabolism in reference to diet refers to the metabolic use of mainly either fat or carbohydrate
to convert ADP to the high energy molecule ATP
mostly by the mitochondria. During starvation proteins also can be used to make ATP.
NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Disease): the accumulation of fat by liver cells sufficient to significantly downgrade their various functions. The NHANES survey 2011 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population—similar % for Europe.
occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to lower glucose to its normal range; it results from chronic IR and the accumulation of fat in the pancreas which eventually causes the decline