Medical-Science, and Diet Terms –2/23/15
at bottom: carbohydrates;
blood transport of cholesterol and lipids
Absolute risk reduction: the difference between two groups as to an
event rate; a measure of the effects of an intervention, such as a drugs diet,
or lifestyle changes. It can be a
comparison to the placebo group or standard treatment. Often it is given as
number of people per
year that must partake in the treatment for one person to avoid the particular
condition. For colon cancer the
base line is 1 case per
15,000 per year in the age group 20 to 30 years old. Since 325 mg aspirin taken
5 years will reduce in the 6th year the incidence by 50%, 30,000 in
that age group would have to take aspirin on the 6th year to prevent
1 colon cancer. Often pharma in
promotion of their drugs gives the percentage reduction which in the above
example for aspirin the risk reduction would be a misleading 50%.
Acetyl is a functional group, the acyl with a chemical formula of COCH3:
The acetyl moiety is a
component of many organic
Acute Ischemic event (heart attack, myocardial infarction, ischemic
stroke) occurs when a coronary or cerebral artery or
arteries are block by young, unstable plaque and sufficient to produce death of
muscle or brain cells and to require medical intervention.
Ad post hoc, propter hoc (ad post hoc
after this because of that, the logical fallacy of assuming a
causal connection based upon order of event, such as between a migraine and
Adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective
mostly of adipocytes. In addition
to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal
cells including preadipocytes,
fibroblast, vascular endothelial
cells and a variety
of immune cells (i.e. adipose
tissue macrophages (ATMs)). It
such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and
the cytokine TNFα. Free fatty
acids are liberated
from lipoproteins by lipoprotein
lipase (LPL) and enter the adipocyte, where they
reassembled into triglycerides by esterifying it onto glycerol. Human
tissue contains about 87% lipids. If insulin is elevated there is a net inward
flux of FFA, and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Insulin
secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) the end products of a reaction in which
bonds to a protein molecule. AGEs are
implicated in many chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) a plant based omega-3 fatty acid, sources flax, chia, and
seed and walnuts. Only about 10% is
converted to the healthful omega-3 EPA.
Alanine aminotransferase, ALT, measured in a blood tells and used as an indication of liver
function—sensitive to the amount of fat in the liver—see fatty liver disease.
Amino acid are biologically
compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic
acid (-COOH) functional
with a side-chain
to each amino acid. The
key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Animal proteins consist of 23 different amino
acids—20 are common,
Angioplasty (PCI) is the
technique of mechanically widening
narrowed or obstructed arteries, the latter typically being a result of atherosclerosis. An empty
and collapsed balloon on a guide wire, known as a balloon
catheter, is passed
into the narrowed locations and then inflated to
a fixed size using water pressures some 75 to 500 times normal blood
Arrhythmia (cardiac dysrhythmia, irregular heartbeat) is any of a
group of conditions in which the electrical
activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than
normal. Arrhythmias can occur in the
upper chambers of the heart, (atria), or in the
lower chambers of the heart, (ventricles). Arrhythmias
may occur at any age. Some are barely perceptible, whereas others can be more
dramatic and can even lead to sudden
cardiac death. “Nearly every anti-arrhythmic drug has the
potential to act as a pro-arrhythmic” Wiki.
Atheroma is an accumulation and swelling in artery walls made up of (mostly) macrophage cells, or debris,
and containing lipids(cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium and a variable amount
of fibrous connective
tissue. Atheroma occurs
Atherogenic capable of producing plaque; atherogenesis, the process.
Long-term this process results in atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis seen primarily in the elderly, a cardiovascular condition
that affects the medium and large arteries walls (tunica media) causing them to
loose elasticity because of calcification and fibrous growth--the primary cause
cardiovascular condition similar to
arteriosclerosis but affecting only the small arteries and arterioles
Arteriole: is a small diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation
that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. Arterioles
have muscular walls (usually only
one to two layers of smooth muscles).
Arterioles receive autonomic nervous system innervation and respond to
circulating hormones in order to regulate their diameter (blood flow).
Atherosclerosis: a form of
arteriosclerosis; it is a syndrome that results from a chronic inflammatory
response of white blood cells to infectious agents within the artery
walls. The artery walls thicken as a
result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells which are both living
(active) and remnants of dead cells that includes calcium crystals, lipids,
cholesterol, etc. The debris for decades
does not reduce the flow of blood because the artery walls enlarge at the
location of plaque. The young, unstable
plaque causes over 80% of the ischemic events; the older plaque has a harden
ATP, Adenosine triphosphate the body’s energy molecule: is a nucleoside
triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme. It is
called the "molecular unit of currency" of
intracellular energy transfer.
ATP transports chemical energy within cells
for metabolism. It is
of the end products of photophosphorylation, cellular
respiration, and fermentation and used by enzymes and structural
proteins in many
cellular processes, including biosynthetic
reactions, motility, and cell division. It’s
depletion plays a major role in death during heart
attack and from congestive heart failure, since ATP is the molecule which is
the energy source used by the heart.
Statins, for example, deplete the ATP supply by 40%, thus pharma doesn’t
test their statins on those with congestive heart failure—though it is often
given to them.
Bias: mainly a manipulation of the conditions of the clinical so as
to promote marketing objectives; viz., a deviation from the goal of science to
arrive at the best possible conclusion.
These results are then written up for journal articles with additional
bias added to further marketing objectives.
Such works are commonly labeled tobacco (marketing) science.
Breaking blind in a clinical trial when either the patient or the
physician correctly assumes which group the trial participant is in—placebo or
drug. For psychiatric drugs it runs
Carbohydrate a biological molecule consisting of a poly-hydrated
ketone or aldehyde consisting of carbon hydrogen and oxygen with a formula of Cm(H2
O)n (with a few exceptions); in biochemistry a saccharide.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve
the heart, the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins) or both--most
often involving atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
Carotid artery: a
Chylomicron are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides
(85-92f%) phospholipids (6-12%) cholesterol (1-3%) and proteins (1-2%). They
transport dietary lipids from the
inestines to other locations in the body.
Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylo,
meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein
particles that consist of triglycerides (85-92%), phospholipids (6-12%), cholesterol (1-3%), and proteins (1-2%). They
transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the
body. Chylomicrons are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins
(chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats
and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the
bloodstream. They transport their exogenous lipids to liver, adipose, cardiac
and skeletal muscle tissue. As a result
chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver.
occurs when in the blood the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in the
arterial blood, or the vascular bed is responsible for the inadequate cardiac
waxy sterol that is an essential component of cell ways and also used in the
product of sex hormones, digestive bile, cortisol, and much more. The main blood
serum source is from synthesis
in the liver. Name from ancient Greek, chole
means bile, stereos means solid, and ol in chemistry from alcohol
(from Arabic). Not a lipid but a
steroid; it is often mistaken grouped with them as in hyperlipidemia.
Cholesterol myth: a
belief promoted by pharma and their “experts” which holds that high serum
levels of cholesterol and saturated fats
are the cause of atherosclerosis and the resulting CVD, heart attacks, and strokes.
Basic research has however shown the cause to be atherosclerosis brought
by to infective agents that live within the muscular wall of arteries which
produce an immune response that includes the absorption of their toxins by LDL
and also involving leucocytes, most prominently macrophages.
CoQ10, an excellent antioxidant found in every cell of the body, and used
in the manufacturer of ATP by the mitochondria.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF, heart failure (HF), congestive cardiac
failure (CCF)) occurs when the heart muscle is unable to maintain adequate
circulation of blood in the tissues of the body or to pump out the venous blood
returned to it by the venous circulation.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) also known as atherosclerotic
heart disease, atherosclerotic
cardiovascular disease, coronary
heart disease, or ischemic
heart disease (IHD),
is the most common type of heart
disease and cause of heart
disease is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the arteries
of the heart, which
narrows the lumen
arteries and reduces blood flow to the heart muscle.
Coronary Heart Failure (CHF) Heart failure, congestive heart failure,
congestive cardiac failure refers to a conditions in which the heart muscle
is deprived of the blood necessary to meet its functional needs as a result of
narrowing or blocking of one or more of the coronary arteries and is
exacerbated by atherosclerosis.
Diabetes type 2,
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (T2D, T2DM, NIDDM) a
chronic metabolic disorder in
which cells become resistant to the glucose regulatory function of insulin, and
thus results in high serum glucose level.
In response the pancreas produces more glucose but not enough to lower
adequately glucose. When symptomatic it
is treated by drugs such as metformin. Often
years later the level of insulin production by the pancreas declines and
insulin is added as a treatment.
Diabetes type 1,
insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes (T1D) results
from the autoimmune
destruction of the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas—accounts for 5%
of diabetes cases.
a neural transmitter that when released can cause a feeling of reward,
and when released chronically results in tolerance.
Double-blind study, one in which neither the
subject nor the experimenters know which subjects are getting the active drug,
and which the placebo—done to minimize the placebo affect
Breaking blind when either the those in the
patient or the physician assumes that person is in the placebo cohort—often a
result of lack of side effects of the placebo, or the lack of medicinal taste
of the placebo.
Dependent/independent risk factor, depend is a marker for a
condition which affects the risk factor, while independent is indicates a
causal relationship. For example
gingivitis is an independent risk factor of CVD, while hypercholesterolemia a
Dyslipidemia: a disruption in the amount of lipids in the blood. Prolonged
elevation of insulin and also O-GlcNAc
transferase (OGT) levels can also
lead to dyslipidemia.
Embolism Embolus (plural emboli;
from the Greek ἔμβολος "clot, lit. ram") is any detached, traveling
intravascular mass (solid, liquid, or gaseous) carried by circulation, which is capable
of clogging arterial capillary
beds (create an arterial
occlusion) at a site
distant from its point of
origin. It may be a blood clot, a fat
globule, or a gas bubble. If this
blocked occurs in an organ it is called a “thrombus”. They may be
classified as to origin: venous or arterial embolism.
Endotoxin, the toxic protoplasm liberated when a
microorganism dies and disintegrates.
Toxic substance bound to the bacterial cell wall and released
when the bacterium ruptures or disintegrates.
Endotoxins consist of lipopolysaccharide
and lipoprotein complexes. The protein
component determines the antibody type that can react with the endotoxin
molecule to produce an immune reaction.
Endotoxins are rarely fatal, although they often cause fever.
End points, in a clinical trial’s protocol certain primary
endpoints and are established, such as death and ischemic events. See also surrogate
Endothelium, the thin layer of cells that line the inner surface of
blood vessels and from which young plaque can leak.
Endothelial dysfunction consists of the compromised functions of
the endothelium most often brought on by serum reactive chemicals. It plays
a role in the development of
atherosclerosis, but not as touted by pharma as a cause of hypertension or
Epidemiological study, epidemiology:
is the science that studies
the patterns, causes, and
effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is
cornerstone of public
policy decisions and evidence-based
practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive
Epigenetics is the study of cellular and physiological
traits that are heritable by daughter cells and not caused
by changes in the DNA sequence; epigenetics describes the study
stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell. These
alterations may or may not be heritable.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along
tissue and nervous
tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the
Many glands are made up of epithelial cells. Functions of epithelial cells
include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular
transport and detection of sensation.
Epithelial layers contain no blood vessels, so they must receive
nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue,
through the basement
Estradiol, the main bioactive estrogen, which is near zero following
menopause, and is the reason for the
many chronic conditions women
experience, and is women rarely--compared to men--have a heart attack
until after menopause.
Estrogen, either the family of 4 female hormones with a structure
similar to testosterone. Estrogen often
refers to estradiol (E2), the most bioactive of the group. There are estrogen
receptors on cells
throughout the body. They regulate the
menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles, and are involved in the regulation
of fat storage, metabolism, bone remodeling, coagulation of blood, salt
retention, libido, vaginal lubrication, melanin, increases collagen in the
skin, cortisol levels, and development of secondary sexual characteristics. The
estradiol drives buttock fat storage, and
falling menopause fat is typically preferentially stored abdominally, which
results in the unhealthy visceral fat.
Fat a subset of lipids with a chain of carbon atoms filled with
hydrogen, and on last carbon which has the functional organic acid group and thus
is also called “fatty acid”. The fatty
acids are commonly joined in groups of three through a glycerol molecule to
form a triglyceride.
Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long alipathic tail (carbon chain)
which is either saturated or unsaturated.
naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of an even number of carbon atoms,
from 4 to 28. When they are not attached
to other molecules, they are known as free
fatty acids. Fatty acids are
important sources of fuel because, when metabolized, they yield large
quantities of ATP. Many cell types
can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Two essential
fatty acids are linoleic
acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic
acid (ALA). (See triglycerides).
liver disease (FLD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a
spectrum of disease activity beginning with fatty accumulation in the liver
(hepatic steatosis). It is a progressive
disease for which with NAFLD in a 10 year period 20% will develop cirrhosis and
10% will die from related liver disease.
Principle causes are ethanol and
Fiber, Dietary fiber,
roughage, found mostly in
plant food sources is the component that is not broken down by digestive
enzymes, has more than ten monomeric units, and is not absorbed in the small
intestines, and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the fiber is
broken down by intestinal bacteria and gradually absorbed through the large intestinal
walls. This fiber includes
hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, cellulose, (all are carbohydrates)
and lignin, the only non-carbohydrate component of dietary fiber.
Fibrillation: in cardiology
either atrial an irregular and uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle
of atria. Ventricular fibrillation is an
irregular and uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of ventricles—a
common cause of cardiac arrest.
Free fatty acids (FFF) found in the blood bound to plasma protein
albumin because they are water insoluble.
Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide found in fruits, and
available commercial as one half of the disaccharide sucrose (cane & beet
sugar) metabolized in the liver. High
dietary fructose causes insulin resistance, fatty liver, and glycation.
Glucose, dextrose is a
monosaccharide hexose. It is the main
energy storage source for plants, and stored in animals as glycogen. It is as
one half of the disaccharide sucrose
(cane & beet sugar), and is also obtain from the metabolism of starches
which are long chains of glucose molecules. Corn syrup is pure glucose, see HFC,
which has been modified to contain
Glucagon is a peptide
of the pancreas that
blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which
lowers blood glucose levels. The pancreas releases glucagon when blood
sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into stored glycogen into glucose, which
released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release
Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The
polysaccharide structure represents the main storage
form of glucose in the body.
Heart Failure (HF) see coronary heart failure is a
pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump blood at a rate
commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissues or can do so
only from an elevated filling pressure.
I t is usually, but not always caused by a defect in myocardial
contraction, i.e., by myocardial failure
Heart Failure (HF) often called congestive heart failure (CHF) or congestive
failure (CCF), occurs
when the heart is unable to provide sufficient pump action
flow to meet the needs of the body. Heart failure can cause a number of symptoms
of breath, leg swelling, and exercise
It and is exacerbated by
High-density lipoprotein (HDL): is the largest by size of the five major
groups of lipoproteins and constitutes about 30% of the blood cholesterol (see
LDL for composition). It functions to
remove fats and cholesterol from cells including with the atheroma in artery
walls and transport it back to the liver for utilization. It is called the good cholesterol because it is supposed to lower the risk of CVD—see
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
(statins), in the
mevalonate pathway, statins inhibit the action of HMG-CoA reductase and thereby
lower the production of a number of products including CoQ10 and
refers to how the human body
manages a multitude of highly complex interactions to maintain balance or
return systems to functioning within a normal range.
is a non-protein α-amino
acid. It is
a homologue of the amino acid cysteine. A high level of homocysteine makes a person
more prone to endothelial injury, which leads to vascular inflammation, which
in turn may lead to atherogenesis, which can result in ischemic injury. Hyperhomocysteinemia
is correlated with the
occurrence of blood clots, heart attacks and strokes because of the role of LDL
as a scavenger for toxins produced by pathogens living in the intima tunica.
Hydrogenation or partially hydrogenation of
process whereby hydrogen is attached to a
fat at the point of a double bond in the chain of carbon atoms making up the
fat. This process while improving the
commercial usefulness of vegetable oils, can create the unnatural trans-fats.
Hyperinsulinemia is a
condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood than expected relative
to the level of glucose. While it is often mistaken for diabetes or hyperglycemia,
hyperinsulinemia can result from a variety of metabolic diseases and
conditions. It is often a sign of T2D.
Hyperlipidemia abnormally high level of lipid and or lipoproteins in the blood
fatty acids and lipoproteins in the blood which is the transport system for
cholesterol and triglycerides thus elevated level of triglycerides (sometimes
Hypertension, high blood pressure HP, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical
condition in which the blood
pressure in the arteries is elevated.
Current guidelines define a pressure above 140/90. In 1982 Merck Manual page
391 it was listed
at 160/95. Hypertension is strongly
associated with atherosclerosis, which is why drug treatments have only modest
effects upon the surrogate outcome of lowering blood pressure, and are not
worth their side effects.
Hypothalamus, the area at the base of the brain that controls
hormone release from various glands.
Hypoxia (hypoxemia, hypoxic, hypoxemic): inadequate
oxygenation of the blood.
Immune response, inflammatory response:
is part of the complex
response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged
cells, or irritants. Inflammation can even occur in the absence of infection
(such as in atherosclerosis),
Insulin (see also
ghrelin and leptin) a glucose and
triglyceride regulatory hormone with multiple other functions including the
upregulation of leptin.
Insulin resistance (IR) the condition in which cells have minimal response to the
insulin, and this results in a high blood sugar level.
Ischemia, n. an inadequate supply of
blood to an organ or part, as from an obstructed blood flow causing a shortage
of oxygen and glucose. (ischemic adj.).
Among the organs affected are the heart, brain, bowels, skin, and
limbs. Ischemic event acute: a
sudden blockage resulting in tissue damage
due to the loss of oxygen.
lipoprotein (IDL): Their size is, in general, 25 to 35 nm in
diameter, and they contain primarily a range of triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. They
are cleared from the plasma into the liver by receptor-mediated
endocytosis, or further
degraded to form LDL particles.
They are similar to LDL.
ischemic event: commonly used to indicate a heart attack or stroke.
Ischemic heart disease ((ISH) coronary
artery disease, atherosclerotic heart disease) causes over 80% of heart attacks.
It is caused by plaque building up along the inner walls of the arteries
of the heart.
Ischemic stroke, a stroke caused by plaque and or a blood clot, resulting in the
of fresh blood and oxygen; contrasted
with a cerebral hemorrhage.
L-carnitine a molecule that promotes the active transport of fatty acids into the
mitochondria for metabolism.
Leptin (see also ghrelin
and insulin) is the satiety hormone made by fat cells which regulates the
amount of fat stored in the body. It
does this by adjusting both the sensation of hunger, and adjusting energy
expenditures. Hunger is inhibited (satiety) when the amount of fat stored
reaches a certain level. Leptin is then secreted and circulates through the
body, eventually activating leptin receptors in the arcuate
nucleus of the hypothalamus. Energy expenditure is increased both by the
signal to the brain, and directly via leptin receptors on peripheral targets.
The effect of leptin is opposite to that of ghrelin, the
group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological
lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components
of cell membranes. From the Greek lipos fat; they are greasy to touch. The term is often used to
Lipoproteins: is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids,
bound to the proteins, which allow fats and cholesterol to move through the
water inside and outside cells. The proteins serve to emulsify the lipid
molecules. Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesins, and toxins are lipoproteins.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
is a water soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides into free fatty acids
for transport into for uptake by cells as needed and by adipose tissue for
storage and by muscles including the heart for metabolism. Over expression of
LPL results in obesity.
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) a water soluble collection of molecule consisting
of about 5 protein
molecules with fatty acid making up the outer skin of the LDL glob, with an
interior contain about 1,500 cholesterol molecules and a similar number of triglycerides,
made by the liver and used for the transport throughout the body. LDL functions
as part of the immune system to scavenge
reactive chemical produced by pathogens.
In the tunica intima serving this function its contents contribute to
the debris found in atheroma. These pathogens are the cause of
atherosclerosis and CVD, while cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides are by
standers. Pharma teaches the cholesterol-fat myths.
(white blood cell (WBC))
is the cells of the immune
system that are involved in defending the body against
disease and foreign materials. Different and diverse types of leukocytes
exist, and several types (including monocytes and neutrophils) are phagocytic. All
leukocytes are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic
Lumen is a cavity
within a duct or cavity, such as the wall of an artery or vein where the blood
Macrophage large white cells that function as scavenger in the removal of debris and
also the removal of foreign invaders such as fungus and bacteria.
Maillard reaction, the binding of simple sugar (glucose, fructose, or galactose)
protein which makes it less functional and at the same time produces a reactive
Media (tumica media) the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or
vein. In the artery it consists mostly
of muscle cells and is where plaque forms and collects.
Mediterranean Diet the traditional diet of the Mediterranean
countries which is often high in
fish, whole grains, beans, vegetables, moderate red wine, monounsaturated fat
from olive oil, and is low in sugar, processed foods, red meats, GMOS, use of
polyvinyl food containers, and pesticides—compare to Western diet.
Meta-analysis (metastudy) the grouping together studies (usually
clinical trials) according to a set of criteria and then calculating the
summation of finding. Cochrane Library
consists of hundreds of such meta-studies without funding from PhARMA. However,
with few exceptions they
underestimate/overestimate the results because it is not possible to eliminate
pharma’s marketing clinical studies.
Metabolic syndrome is a
disorder of energy utilization and
storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following
medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure,
elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density
cholesterol (HDL) levels. Though high lipid-cholesterol is not
associated with pathology, it is included based upon pharma’s tobacco
science—see cholesterol myth.
nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small
quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions—as opposed to macronutrients
which are required in
amounts above 100 milligrams. They
include vitamins and minerals and other organic compounds—compared to the
Mitochondrion, Mitochondria plural; the powerhouse for over 90% of
bodily functions. A type of organelle found
in eukaryotic cells (with nucleus) whose function is the generation of ATP (supra)
oxidizing the major products of glucose, pyruvate, and NADH.
There are none in the short-lived erythrocytes and over 2000 in some
Modus operandi, method of action, the causal explanation involving
the involved mechanism.
Morbidity is a disease state, disability, or
poor health due to any cause.
Myalgia: pain in a muscle or group of
muscles; common side effect of statins (myalgic adj.)
(MI): a heart attack that occurs
when the blood that nourishes the heart muscle is cut off due to the leaking of
unstable plaque which is often further occluded by a blood clot. The resulting
ischemia event damages the
heart muscle. Myocardium, the muscular substance of the heart.
are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one
neuron (nerve cello) to another target neuron.
are synthesized from plentiful and simple
precursors such as amino
readily available from the diet. Over 200 of
these chemical messengers have been identified.
Neuropathy is damage or disease affecting nerves, which may impair
gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of
nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin
deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy), traumatic injury, excessive
alcohol consumption, immune system disease, or infection, or it may be
inherited (present from birth).
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs):
is a medical condition
or disease that can be defined as non- infectious
people. NCDs can refer to chronic
diseases which last for long periods of
time and progress slowly. The term is
often used to refer to the epidemic which plagues those eating a Western diet,
of which most notable are diabetes, obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis,
angina, hypertension, osteoporosis, arthritis, and the life terminating
conditions including cancer, heart attack, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease. All
of these conditions are rare among those
eating a Paleolithic diet.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFALD):
Obesity, the state of having an excess of adipose which
about 25or more of total body mass.
Officially defined as a BMI of 25 or greater, approximately 25% above
Off-label use: is the use of pharmaceutical
drugs for an unapproved by the FDA indication or in an unapproved age group, unapproved
dosage, or unapproved form of
administration. Pharma promotes such use though it is barred
by regulations. Such usage
amounts to over 50% or more of sales.
Pharma is prohibited from actively promoting such usages.
Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom,
and thereby increase the valance. (see redox). Confusion is created because this term is
also commonly used to refer to one specific reaction, that of combining with
oxygen to form a compound such as iron oxide (rust).
Oxidative stress/damage; done to cell by reactive oxygen species. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through
the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell,
including proteins, lipids, and DNA.
Paleolithic diet is a diet
based on the food humans' ancient
ancestors might likely have eaten, such as meat, nuts, tubers, and
berries. Current and hunter-gatherer
groups are used to determine the diet.
Globally there is great variation.
These people have a near zero rate of the Western list of
non-communicable diseases (NCD). However
with the introduction of the Western
diet these peoples develop NCDs. Human
metabolism has developed for this
Pharma: used collectively to
indicate the companies that make up the drug industry. Big pharma is the top ten companies
in sales of prescription drugs. PhARMA
is the Pharmaceutical research and manufacturers of America, pharma’s powerful
trade organization. Bad pharma refers the way
in which pharma applies corporate tobacco ethics, which places profits above
people, and refers to the way they distort the practice of medicine.
Phospholipids: a class of
lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. Most phospholipids
contain a diglyceride, a
phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule such as choline. They provide
membrane fluidity and mechanical
strength. The ‘head’ is hydrophilic (attracted
to water), while the hydrophobic ‘tails’ are repelled by water. LDL,
VDL, IDL, HDL, and chylomicrons have a
wall in part consisting of phospholipids, which makes these large units soluble
for blood transport.
Placebo is a simulated
or otherwise medically ineffectual treatment
for a disease or other medical condition intended to deceive the recipient.
Sometimes patients given a placebo treatment will have a perceived or actual
improvement in a medical condition, a phenomenon commonly called the placebo effect.
Plaque is the accumulation of degenerative materials in the inner
layer of the artery wall—see atheroma.
Polypeptide Peptides are naturally occurring biological
molecules. They are short chains of amino
linked by peptide (amide)
bonds. They are distinguished from proteins on the basis of
size—having less than 50 amino acids, the shortest just 2. They have many
vital life functions. Ingested peptides--like those of
proteins--are divided into amino acids prior to absorption in the
Polypharmacy : the taking of
4 or more prescription medications on a regular basis. Their interaction often
poses a serious
under-diagnosed health problem.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, a large class of fatty acids with 2 or
more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule. Being unsaturated entails
that the carbon
chain is subject to oxidation which results in the polyunsaturated fatty acids
becoming rancid. This poses a health
risk in that some of these products of oxidation cannot be metabolized and thus
like trans-fats promote atherogenesis with its assorted unhealthy
Primary prevention of ischemic event: treatment for those how have
not had an acute ischemic event (especially a myocardial infarction) to lower
their risk. It includes lifestyle
changes, and for those with high risk factors with an assortment of drugs;
distinguished from those who had an acute ischemic event, see secondary prevention
Pump head (postperfusion syndrome) is a constellation of neurocognitive impairments attributed to cardiopulmonary
bypass (CPB) during cardiac
Incidence is common.
Symptoms of postperfusion syndrome are subtle and include defects
associated with attention, concentration, short term memory, fine motor
function, and speed of mental and motor responses. Affects have been measured
Raw data is
a term for data collected from a source. Raw data
has not been
subjected to processing or any other manipulation, and are also referred to as primary data. Raw data is
a relative term (see
can be input to a computer
program or used in
manual procedures such as analyzing statistics from a survey.
Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions
include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions
involve the transfer of electrons between species.
This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide (CO2) or reduction of carbon
by hydrogen to yield methane
(CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation
of glucose (C6H12O6)
in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.
Saturated fatty acids, a class of fat with a long chain of
carbon all single bonds. They are not
Saccharide: a carbohydrate,
a biological molecule consisting of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon with hydrogen
and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1.
Sarcopenia the loss of muscle mass causing weakness. Statins contribute
to this through lowering
of CoQ10, and thereby affecting exercise and physical exertion, which are
needed to maintain muscle mass and tone.
Secondary prevention: treatments for those who have had an acute
ischemic event (stroke or heart attack) with lifestyle changes and drugs so as
to lower the risk of a subsequent acute ischemic event.
poisoned condition resulting from the presence of pathogens or their
toxins. The severe infection caused by
pathogenic organisms, especially bacteria, in the blood or tissues. If untreated,
a localized infection, as in
the respiratory or urinary tracts, can lead to infection in the blood stream
and widespread inflammation, characterized by fever, chills, and other symptoms
and later septic shock. Chronic infection is a causal factor
Starch & cellulose: both are formed in plants from thousands of molecules of
though having the same component glucose the bonding of the glucose is
different in those two carbohydrates.
Unlike for starches, for cellulose mammals lack the enzyme to split
the bond to form the monosaccharide glucose. A few bacteria, protozoans, and
fungi have an enzyme to split the polymer into the monosaccharide glucose for
digestion. Termites and cows, for
example, rely symbiotically on those fungus, protozoa, and bacteria for the
production of glucose from cellulose and other forms of fiber—see fiber. Similarly
man has bacteria, and some of the
glucose derived is absorbed through the large intestine’s wall.
Statin are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA
plays a central role in the production of cholesterol
in the liver.
Sucrose (sugar, table
sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar) a disaccharide consisting of the molecules
glucose and fructose—distinguished from malt sugar, barley sugar, etc.
is a compound
that contains the superoxide anion with the chemical formula O2−
[the “-“ sign indicates that the oxygen has an extra electron, the subscript
“2” that it is shared by 2 oxygen atoms]. The systematic name of the anion is
dioxide(1−). Superoxide anion is particularly important as the product of the
one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs widely
Surrogate endpoint before it begins, certain items are measured
during the trial. Sometimes because a
biological marker is a good predictor of prognosis and so is used instead of
the normal results for which the medication is hope to affect. The measurement
of LDL is often used as a
surrogate marker for ischemic events. Other times the progression of a disease
is slow, such as Parkinson’s, thus physical and cognitive performances are
measured, and the results are used as surrogate measurements for disease
Tachycardia, abnormal rapid beating of the heart.
Thought Leader, opinion leader because of being pharma friendly a few administrators,
physicians perform various well-paid services for pharma, such as a research,
author of textbooks, head clinics, and giving educational classes. They become
known as an expert in their
Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel obstruction the
flow of blood through the circulatory system.
The clot may form from trauma, from leaking atheroma, or as a result of
the combination of restricted flow, turbulence and hypercoagulability.
Tobacco ethics describes the performance of large corporations in their drive to
maximize profits as the measure of performance—based upon a parallel in action
to the performance of tobacco companies.
Tobacco science, marketing science, dressed as science but well
below the standards of science, done for to promote business goals.
Total Cholesterol (TC) the amounts of High density, low density, and very low density
lipoproteins, of triglycerides, and other blood borne compound that are
indicators for angiogenesis.
Trans-fats (trans-isomer) in the carbon chain of a fatty acid a double-bounded between
2-carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom on the upside of the chain and the other
on the downside. If the hydrogens in the
double-bonded carbon are on the same side it is a cis-isomer. Trans isomers
are fatty acids that are rare
in nature, but are commercial produced through a process of hydrogenation.
the breakdown of a blood clot by pharmacological means through stimulating
fibrinolysis by plasmin, an enzyme that degrades many blood plasma proteins,
Thrombosis: “(Greek: θρόμβωσις)
is the formation of a blood
clot (thrombus) inside a blood
the flow of blood through the circulatory
system. It can be a response to injury, or the
of leaking plaque that can partially plug an artery and initiate the clotting
process further occluding the artery. In
the brain it results in a stroke, the heart a myocardial infarction (MI).
Triglyceride (TG) is
an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty
acids. As a blood lipid packaged in lipoproteins
it helps enable
the bidirectional transference of adipose fat to tissues. They
are the form in which fat is stored in
adipose tissue. They are hydrolyzed into
fatty acids for cellular utilization including metabolism. Triglycerides
are the main constituents of vegetable
oil (typically more unsaturated) and animal
fats (typically more saturated).
Tunica media (short media)
the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
In the artery it consists mostly of muscle cells and is where plaque
forms and collects.
Unsaturated fat a large class of fatty acids
with 2 or more double bonds in the carbon chain of a fat molecule.
low-density lipoprotein (VLDL): VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apo-lipoproteins. VLDL
converted in the bloodstream to low-density
lipoprotein (LDL). VLDL particles have a diameter of 30-80 nm. It functions to transport
triglycerides, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters from the liver to cells
throughout the body where it is taken in via LDL receptors.
Diet, Western lifestyle: a dietary
pattern in developed countries, and increasingly in
developing countries. It is
characterized by high intakes of processed
foods with their added sugars, refined
grains, high fructose drinks, and the frequent eating at fast food restaurants. Fat is
typically reduced to about 30% of
calories which is replaced by carbohydrates.
The Western diet/lifestyle is responsible for the epidemic increase in