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Fat and the Fix

This is part of a library of articles on diet and related items.  The heart of the collection of articles, the results of 23 months of full-times studies, is at Recommended healthful.  Don’t forget to use the internal Google search engine on each section’s homepage, and to visit the video library with links to over 105 documentaries and lectures on health related issues.  

Why We Get Fat, and what to do about it! --  http://healthfully.org/rc/id23.html, radi/id1 rjk/9 12/9/16                 IR = Insulin Resistance    NAFLD = Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease     T2D = Type-2 Diabetes   CardioVascular Disease (CVD) definitions on the next page (read first—most of which was taught in high school biology)

All mammals have a complex regulatory system for appetite, metabolism, and fat storage.  There are over eighty hormones involved in the system.  The Western diet is high the carbs fructose and glucose.  Fructose causes a fatty liver (NAFLD) which mucks up the regulatory systems leading to the IR, & that to obesity, T2D, CVD, etc.  Glucose and proteins raise insulin levels, and insulin causes cells to burn glucose and thus to STORE FAT!  IR causes excess fat storage.  Causes:  The reactive sugar fructose (1/2 of sucrose) goes to the liver to be metabolized, and there through glycation it damages the liver cells.  This causes IR in the liver and thus excess fat storage (NAFLD) there.  The liver now fails to properly help regulate blood glucose to cause in IR in muscles, fat cells, etc. which causes their excess fat storage there and other tissues.  Excess fat in the pancreas causes T2D.  Fat tissue produces the hormone leptin which control the amount of fat.  On an energy restricted diet leptin functions to maintain current weight by increasing appetite and reducing metabolism.  Even after losing weight, this system functions to restore the fat—the yo-yo diet.  Goals:  to metabolize the excess fat in the liver and pancreas which reset the regulatory system by curing T2D, IR & also leptin resistance.  To do this requires both fasting & sugar-carb restriction.  Follow the dollars and you will find out why we have the high sugar (151 lbs. US average 2000) western diet and the wrong advice (diet & exercise)--for long version.

Fix:   Short-term or alternate day fasting with very low carb & high fat  diet to metabolize fat metabolizing mode.      

   Fructose by glycation damages the liver and high glucose via insulin causes fat storage in liver (the 1-2 punch)

Fructose glycation damages liver >>>IR in liver >>> NAFLD >>> IR in muscle and fat tissues >>>>  excess fat storage

T2D and obesity are cured with fasting.  For example in the first 2-weeks following bariatric surgery over 80% with T2D are cured before major weight loss.  With low carb diet and alternate day-fasting the cure takes 2-12 months.

Simple fix:  it starts with supermarket.  For B) & C) just buy wholesome, very low net-carb foods (on food label, carbs minus fiber) with low glycemic (table).  The goal is to stay in the fat burning mode by fasting and low digestible carbs.         

A)  Good health:    lower carbs, cut sugars, and take JK short fast at least once weekly and follow JK food table.

B)  Insulin resistant, obesity:   JK short fast daily and the New Atkins Diet (replace carbs with fats for energy). This diet is low carbs to start, with no other limits; later increase carbs.  JK has added several healthful modifications, at link.  

C)  T2D and morbid obesity:   start with B) and if after 4 months the fasting glucose and HbA-1c are still high then fast every other day for 24 hours.  Burning the excess fat in the liver and pancreas is the fix.  Watch Dr. Jason Fung lectures at “diabetes” on video page.  The more you learn, the more committed you will become to curing T2D and obesity.

I recommend for B) & C) a gradual approach to the low carbs induction phase of the New Atkins diet:  start with quitting sugars and adjusting to that while gradually cutting net carbs to 30 grams daily—it starts in the supermarket and family support. I & others find fasting quite easy.  Stop eating at 7 PM or earlier, and continued to 11 AM or later.  For hunger nibble leafy vegetables, and drink tea, coffee black and bullion soups. 

JK short fast:  extending the beneficial nighttime fat burning to produce ATP (the energy molecule) to midday.  Because of not eating at night serum glucose is low, thus little insulin is secreted by the pancreas.  The body must metabolize fat to produce ATP.  There is no loss in energy when fat burning and alertness and mood are good because of the production of catecholamines—neural transmitters—when fat burning.  Fasting hastens weight loss, and also burns liver & pancreas fat to cure IR and T2D.  We are a social, loquacious animal; therefore watch the diet documentaries at my website. 

The best source on what to eat for health, for diet, and related topics.  In the rh section are articles which lay out the evidence for what is found there and dja has journal articles on rancid fats, diet, etc.  Important are Part 5 on supplements, Part 6 which covers many of the topics here, and Part 10 on the New Atkins diet.  The large Videos library with brief descriptions has links to YouTube.  It confirms the claims here--and other major health topic.  The links to ABC, CBC, and BBC national networks expose what U.S. corporate media hides about diet.  Knowledge is part of the cure.   

Adipocytes (lipocytes) fat cells compose adipose tissue & secrete hormones resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.  

ATP, Adenosine TriPhosphate (adenosine with 3 phosphate molecules (PO4) attached), transfers chemical energy within the cell through the loss of one of its phosphate groups.  In the mitochondria ADP returns to the high energy state ATP 3(PO4) through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates & fats.  ATP provides the energy for over 90% of the biosynthesis:  for muscle contraction, hormones, collagen, etc. and for intra and intercellular active transport.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes cigarettes and a high sugar diet by causing  endothelial dysfunction of the artery walls.  These cells permit pathogens to colonize in the artery walls to cause inflammation, atherosclerosis, and CVD.

Carbohydrate (carb):  fiber, fructose, glucose, glycogen, starch, sucrose, lactose, net carbs (total carbs minus fiber):

Fiber, vegetable fiber, roughage,  the carbohydrate component not broken down by digestive enzymes, but some is by gut bacteria.  Fiber has more than ten sugar units.  It lowers the insulin spike when consumed with refined carbs. 

Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide; main sources are fruits, the disaccharide sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup.  Fructose is only metabolized in the liver.   Fructose is a net 15 more reactive then glucose and by glycation damages proteins throughout the body to cause age related chronic diseases. In the liver it causes IR and NAFLD. 

Glucose a monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in humans 1-2-lbs is stored as long-chain glycogen a backup energy source stored in muscles, fat and liver cells.  Glucose is as one half of sucrose, and is also obtained from the hydrolysis of the digestible starches.  Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.

 Starch is long chains of glucose units (polysaccharide) that is produced mostly by green plants for energy storage. 

Sucrose, table sugar, a disaccharide produced by plants that is hydrolyzed in the stomach into the sugars fructose and   glucose, the forms which are absorbed, circulated in the blood, and active transported into certain cells. 

Glycation:  a process where a monosaccharide (simple sugar) randomly attaches to mainly proteins, and this adversely affects their functions, thus glycation is a major cause of our chronic age-related diseases. 

Fat (Free Fatty acids and triglycerides): up to 24 carbon molecules with an organic acid or glycerol molecule on end.

Incretin: class of hormones secreted by the stomach and intestines which causes insulin secretion and produces satiety.

Insulin: a gateway hormone is produced by the pancreas.  Its main function is to have cells absorb glucose and store fat.  Insulin also regulates other hormones including leptin.  Low insulin is the cause of type 1 and 2 diabetes. 

Insulin resistance (IR):   a condition of higher than normal amount of blood insulin to manage blood glucose due to a diminished response to insulin by various tissues.  The pancreas then releases even more insulin to lower blood glucose.

Ketogenic diet (very low carbohydrate diet):  it forces the body to rely upon just fats to produce ATP to cause weight loss without restricting calories.  It is named refers to the ketones produced in this metabolic natural process

Leptin:  produced by fat cells is in part regulated by insulin.  Leptin in the brain suppresses appetite and it also regulates metabolism.  Leptin is responsible for the 25% reduction in metabolism plus increased appetite that eventually occurs during an energy-restricted diet.  Leptin functions to maintain fat storage and to restore weight even years later.  

Lipids are a group of naturally occurring fat like molecules including waxes, sterols, fats, phospholipids, and others.

Metabolism in reference to diet refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat or carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP mostly by the mitochondria.  Under conditions of starvation proteins also can be used to make ATP.

NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease):  the accumulation of fat by liver cells sufficient to significantly downgrade their various functions.  The NHANES survey 2011 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population—similar % for Europe. 

Type-2 diabetes (T2D): occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to lower glucose to its normal range; it results from chronic IR and the accumulation of fat in the pancreas which eventually causes the decline in insulin.


. Each portion of food contained 240 Calories—score relative to white bread which was set at 100

Peanuts                   20


Fish                            59


Grapes                           82

Eggs                          31


Oranges                    69


Crackers                         87

All bran                    32


Potato chips            61


Ice cream                       89

Porridge                  40


Brown rice               62  


Cookies                          92

Brown Pasta          40


Special K                   66


Whole Bread                96

White Pasta           40


Honey smacks         67


White Bread               100

Cheese                    45


Coco Pops                71 


Yogurt sweetened    115

Granola plain         46


French Fries             74


Baked Beans can       120

Beef                         51


Corn Flakes              75


Potatoes                      121

Popcorn                  54


Croissants                79


Mars Bar                      122

Grain bread            56


White Rice               79


Jelly Beans                  160

Lentils                      58


Bananas                   81


Fats                                  10

Apples                     59


Cake                          82



Table from link, and detailed explanation of the testing.

Net Carbs while on Atkins ketogenic diet—easy table by JK         

Net Carbs = total carbohydrates minus fiber content in grams (avoid those in red)

Egg 1 = 0.4 grams

Seafood 6 oz. = 0

Meats 6 oz. = 0

Poultry 6 oz. = 0

Oils 6 oz. = 0



American processed 1 slice 1.5 grams

Cheeses 1 oz. = 0.7

Cottage cheese c = 5

Cream 1 T  = 0.4

Cream cheese 2 T = 1.2

Milk 1 c = 11.7 to 15

Yogurt plain 1 c = 11.6

Greek Yogurt plain 1 c =  9


Raw Vegetables

Avocado = 2 grams

Bell pepper green c= 2.2

Bell pepper red c =3

Broccoli c = 1

Cabbage shredded c = 1.1

Celery stalk = 1

Cauliflower florets c = 1.4

Cucumber c = 1

Green beans c = 2


Almonds 24 = 2.5 grams

Brazil 6 = 1.4

Cashews 2 T = 5.1

Mixed nuts 2 T = 2

Peanuts 2 T = 1.4

Pecans 1 oz. = 1.2

Walnuts 1 oz. 1.2


Lettice 1 c = 0.36

Olives black 5 = 0.7

Olives green 5 = 0.0

Onion 2 tbs. = 1

Spinach 1 c = 0.2

Squash summer c    2.6

Tomato 1 med = 3.0

Tomato juice 1c = 8

For those off

the induction

(ketogenic) phase


Apple med = 8 grams

Banana med = 30

Blueberries c = 9

Dates dried 1 oz = 21

Fig dried med = 6

Grapes 1 c = 26

Grapefruit = 9

Melon cantaloupe 1 c  = 12

Orange navel med =15

Peach med = 15

Pear med = 20

Strawberry 5 lg = 5


Black bean home cooked 1 c = 8

Canned baked beans 1c = 36

Kidney home cooked 1c = 11

Pinto bean home cooked 1c = 25

Soybean white 1c =10

Vegetables not  leafy

Beets steamed 1c  = 13

Carrots steamed 1c = 8

Corn on cob med steamed 15

Eggplant 1c = 5

Olive cured 7 = 1

Onion 1 c = 12

Peas 1 c = 14

Potato med with skin = 26

Rice brown 1 c = 43

Snow peas c cooked = 2.7

Squash acorn 1 c = 21

Squash zucchini 1c = 3

Sweet potato med = 20

Also avoid refined carbs, high carbs, and like such as in chips, breads, pasta, soda, all juices and sweetened drinks, most deserts.  Since goal is low insulin, limit protein to about 35 grams woman and 45 average size man.

Net carbs, from the food label simply subtract fiber from total carbohydrates

On the Atkins website (http://files.atkins.com/1501_CarbCounter_Online.pdf) is an extensive table of net carbs.  Remember that food manufacturers add sugar to nearly every product plus many of them have various forms of starch as filler and thickening agent (starch is pure glucose). 

Leptin “the "satiety hormone,"[a] is a hormone made by adipose cells [fat] that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the "hunger hormone". Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis.[2] In obesity, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores[3]Wiki.   Leptin Resistance entails a resistance in cells to leptin, and therefore the secretion of an excess of leptin in the blood which causes eating more food to produce satiety.  Leptin also functions to lower metabolism when on a diet so as to maintain the current or to return to the former level of fat storage. 

Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs): specialists who rise to top positions in their area of expertise.  In fields relevant to business the norm is their KOLs violate the standards of science to produce studies and spread business-favorable spin.  The term is used in to connote  bad conduct.  Pharma has used KOLs along with regulatory capture to produce a drug disaster while selling it to medical students, physicians, politicians, and the public as cutting edge science.   See Prof Marcia Angell lecture below.

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Remember that pharma is in the business of treating illness.  There claim of preventing illness is in most cases mere marketing.

Disclaimer:  The information, facts, and opinions provided here is not a substitute for professional advice.  It only indicates what JK believes, does, or would do.  Always consult your primary care physician for medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment.