RECOMMENDED CANCER, STARVING DIET, MACROPHAGES


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Cancer basics and starving cancer--jk
90% CHEMO SUCKS--BMJ REVIEW, 2016
Starving cancer by fasting and ketogenic diet, a review
Cancer as a metabolic disease, starving cancer--Seyfried, 2014
Highlites of Seyfried 2014 Plus 2 more articles
Ketogenic diet starves cancer, Seyfried Journal 2007
Role of Macrophages in metastatic cancer
Metabolic pathways and cancer growth--2008 review
Glutimate cancer treatments
Glutamine and cancer-2001 review
Blocking Glutimate metabolism by cancer
Ketogenic diet starves cancer, known as Warburg effect, 1924
Otto Warburg's article plus study of Warburg effect

Cancer basics and starving cancer--jk




Cancer basics & explains how to starve http://healthfully.org/rcdm/id1.html      id4.html  (long) 2/3/17


As required by law, I am not recommending that the public do as I do.  I am only setting out why some scientist subscribe to a different theory of cancer and its treatment, and what I would do based on their theory. 


Introduction 1, Essentials summarized.  Section 2, definitions of key terms, Section 3, Cancer basics. Section 4, cancer metabolism.  Section 5, Dietary fix.  Section 6, What I would do if I had cancer.  Section 7, links YouTube etc.  Appendix The evidence, a few Journal quotes. 


What follows provides all the essential to understanding how I would fight cancer. The material sets out the information sufficient to convince the reader that this is not another quack claim, but is built upon a biological foundation, supported by a compelling body of experimental evidence and case histories, and has convinced a number of experts.  This body of evidence has convinced me to use fasting to prevent cancer by starving pre-cancerous tumors.  For more on what I would do, see Section 6.  In a separate paper I set out the evidence why I think that chemo for all but 4 cancers is worse than no treatment (the claims otherwise are slick marketing)—click on link.  At the end of this paper, I provide links to the work by Prof. Thomas Seyfried and team of scientists at Boston College (a very highly rated Jesuit University)[1] along with the works of others.  I have spent 5 months in studies and rewriting, based upon their work.     


Two excellent educational shorts for those who need a refresher on cells and their metabolism


*****Biology: Cell Structure  7 min, 2,438,000  covers everything you need to know, for one who is familiar with basic biological processes.  Concise, accurate, professional animation. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URUJD5NEXC8 Excellent


*****1 Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation 6 min.4,000 views,   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHeOyQBuH6E Excellent


 


Sections I:   The essentials summarized


Cancer abnormal metabolism and macrophage:   The path to cancer is through the mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) mutations[2] which causes limited metabolism.  The evidence that all cancers have limited metabolism was published in a medical journal in 1924 by Prof. Otto Warburg (1883-1970, a Nobel Laurette and giant in biochemistry).  Subsequent works in that period and later have confirmed Warburg’s finding (called Warburg effect) that all cancers have limited metabolism.  Later works have showed why this leads to cancer:  A rare event occurs, involving a macrophage (immune cell) which function 1) to dispose of abnormal cells including benign tumors and 2) promote healing.  The macrophage is attracted because of their abnormal metabolism to start cellular dismantling (apoptosis) of the tumor.  In very rare event, a transfer of its macrophage DNA occurs and it will become a cancer if certain genes are turned onto give the tumor the macrophage properties (ability to travel and not be destroyed for being foreign) and functions affecting healing.  This transfer by the macrophages has turned the benign tumor into a cancer.  The tumor now can spread to other tissues, evade immune system which checks for foreign and abnormal cells, grow new blood vessels to supply glucose and other nutrients, and avoid the limits for the number of new generation controlled by the telomerase system.[3]  Thus cancer is a two-step process, that mutations in the mitochondria DNA (mDNA), and fusion with DNA from a macrophage. 

This theory of the cause of cancer is well supported by extensive basic research published in journal articles and lectures on YouTube-see Seyfried and video library section 6 and review article.  The science behind the theory leads to a natural dietary intervention to prevent cancer, to treat inoperable cancer, and to reduce the chance that a stage 1 through 3 cancers will after excision  subsequently be discovered to have already metastasized, or the missed portion will later metastasize. The cure is fasting and eating a very low carb diet, this will starve to death cancer cells (apoptosis); or in the very least cause a prolonged remission.  This success has been published.  What follows is to help you understand why some leading researchers have abandoned the pharma-generated theory of cancer and their chemotherapy.  (I will be writing a basic summation shortly). If what follows makes your head spin, then skip it and go to sections 5 and 6 on what to do and links to additional material which confirms my choices. 



[1] I doubt that this type of work by a team of scientist would get funded at a more business dependent university given the reach of pharma, a trillion dollar industry operating on tobacco ethics. 

[2] Mitochondria have their own DNA and can multiple as needed within a cell.  They are a cell within a cell.  It function is to provide the energy molecule ATP, while not allowing the reactive chemical produced in that process to get outside of their walls and damaging the host cell.  There are up to 2000 mitochondria in each cell in the body with the exception of red blood cells. 

[3] Note, no series of 6 mutations, the theory pharma pushes, is needed to convert a few tumor cells into cancer.  Pharma, following its business model, is treating symptoms instead of the cause.  This is why there of the nearly 200 types of cancer only about 4 can be cured with chemotherapy. For more on pharma’s cancer scam click on the link at rl/id4 and BMJ http://healthfully.org/cat/id6.html.

 




Sections II  Definitions – terms used here


Acetyl-CoA (Acetyl coenzyme A):  its main function is to convey carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the Krebs (citric acid) cycle to be oxidized.  It also plays an essential role in the metabolism of glucose, degradation of fatty acids, and the metabolism of amino acids.  It also is one of two components of the common neural transmitter acetylcholine.


Adenosine triphosphate, see ATP


Amino acid:  biologically important organic compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH)  functional groups, and are essential nutrients. The key elements of an amino acid are carbonhydrogenoxygen, and nitrogen.  There are 21 common amino acids, and are the building blocks of proteins and polypeptides. 


Anaerobic process:  one which occurs without the presence of oxygen


Aerobic process:  one which occurs in the presence of oxygen


Apoptosis is a process of programmed, orderly cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.  Between 50 and 70 billion cells die this way in the average human adult.  Necrosis is unorderly cell death from acute injury.


ATP, Adenosine triphosphate, the body’s energy molecule:   is a nucleoside triphosphate that transports chemical energy created through metabolism in the mitochondria and used to power over 90% of the body’s chemical reactions, such as those which permit muscle contractions and the synthesis of compounds.  ATP goes from a high state of energy to a low state.  The main way ATP goes back to the high state of energy is through absorbing energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates or fats in the mitochondria, where ATP is restored to three phosphate groups (PO4). 


Beta oxidation:   is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes to liberate 2-carbon units, acetyl-CoA, or 3-carbon propionyl-CoA.  They condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle.


Cancer (neoplasm) a group of cells which have gross mutations in their mitochondria which alters their metabolism, so that they must rely upon by lactic acid fermentation glucose.  Having acquired this abnormal metabolism they attract macrophages, and in a rare fusion occurrence have gained the mitochondrial DNA of a macrophage and thereby have acquired various properties in their nuclear DNA that have been turned on by oncogenes to give that cell and its progeny certain properties of macrophage, which includes the ability to invade adjacent tissues and to colonize certain distant tissues without destruction by the immune system.  Also turned on are the tissue-healing properties (another function of the macrophage): rapid growth, angiogenesis (new blood vessels for the growing cancer, and unlimited reproduction; thus turned off or bypassed are the signals which limit all of those changes and bring about apoptosis.


Carbohydrates (carbs) a biological molecule consisting of a poly-hydrated ketone or aldehyde with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and a formula of ­C­n(H2 O)n (with a few exceptions); in biochemistry a saccharide.  Common ones are the starches, sugars, and fibers which are starches that resistant to the digestion except for a few insects and some bacteria.  Carbs and fats are the main sources used by the mitochondria and cytosol in the production of ATP and other energy supply molecules.


Citric acid cycle (TCA, Krebs cycle).  The aerobic metabolism of pyruvate (acetyl-CoA) to produce approximately 29 ATP energy molecules—see Krebs cycle for more info.


Cytosol (cytoplasmic matrix):  the water soluble components of cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal of the organelles and otherintracellular structures.  In this plasma occurs protein biosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathwayglycolysis (see below) and gluconeogenesis.  Note, the cytoplasm is the cytosol plus the organelles. 


Fatty Acid Metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy (ATP) and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).  They are the main energy storage form for vertebrates..   Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondriaendoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus).  Fatty acid oxidation also occurs in peroxisomes when the fatty acid chains are too long to be handled by the mitochondria—greater than 22 carbon and branched chains.. The same enzymes are used in peroxisomes as in the mitochondrial matrix, and acetyl-CoA is generated. The ATP production in the oxidation cycle averages 12 per cycle which starts with acyl-CoA . 


Fermentation (lactic acid fermentation) is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process which turns pyruvate from glycolysis is turned into lactic acid.  The process takes place in the cytosol—not in the mitochondria.


Glucose a monosaccharide is the main energy storage molecule for plants; in animals, it is stored as long chain called glycogen.  Glucose is as one half of the disaccharide sucrose, also obtained by hydrolysis of starches which are long chains of glucose molecules.  Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.


Glutamine (Q, glutamate) is a nonessential α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins, and has many other functions including a as a necessary intermediate in the Krebs cycle—not a source of ATP, as thought by some.  Cancers can metabolize glutamate to produce ATP, the amount varies, but in general cancer is a glutamate hog.  Thus in starving cancer on a KD diet, there might be sufficient glutamate from proteins to sustain some of the cancer cells.   


 


Glycolysis from glycose the older term for glucose: is a process in the cytosol or mitochondria in which glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the presence of oxygen (Krebs cycle), or pyruvate to lactic acid (fermentation) in the absence of oxygen.  If anaerobic, glucose is converted to the 3 carbon molecule pyruvate a 10 step enzymatic (fermentation) process that produces 2 ATP molecules from ADP, and also produce NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).  Because of the lack of oxygen or damage mitochondria in cancer, the NADH can’t be used in the efficient aerobic Krebs cycle within the mitochondria which produces 29 ATPs.  Cancer because of damaged mitochondria must catabolize glucose to lactic acid, even if oxygen is present.  This anaerobic process occurs in the cytosol to produce only 2  ATP—see fermentation above. 


Ketone bodies are derived from fatty acid.  They aree water-soluble molecules (acetoacetatebeta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone).   They are produced by during periods of low food intake (fastingcarbohydrate restrictive dietsstarvation, sleep, and when not eating for several hours) and prolonged intense exercise,  They are converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle (Krebs) and is oxidized aerobically in the mitochondria to produce ATP.  Thus cancer can’t use them.  Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of the central nervous system.  They act as a substitute for glucose in the brain.


Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, very low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children, dementia, and to starve cancer. With short-term fasting, it is the best diet for obesity.  Because there are low carbs, the mitochondria must metabolize fats.  Carbohydrates are limited to 20 grams per day—some KDs go higher.


Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle): is a series of chemical 10 chemical reactions used to produce ATP through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and [insignificantly] proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. (Cancer because of damaged mitochondria can ‘t produce ATP in the mitochondria.)  The last step in this process results in the re-creation of the starting material acetyl-CoA, which is why it is called a cycle.  It is named after Hans Krebs (1937) who had worked in Otto Warburg laboratory--also a Noble Laurette.


Mitochondrion (mitochondria pl.) is a membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.  These structures are sometimes described as "the powerhouse of the cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.  A dominate role of the mitochondria is the production of ATP, which is done by oxidizing the major products of glucose, which are pyruvate and NADH, both of which are produced in the cytosol.  The pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA for the Krebs cycle. Their number of mitochondria varies, for instance, red blood cells have none, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000., about 1/5th the volume of a hepatocyte.  Because of the reactive chemical produced in the production of ATP, they are enclosed to prevent seepage of reactive chemical that would damage the cell.  Their DNA is thus subject to much more damage than the DNA in the nucleus of the cells they are found in.  In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth.


Mitosis, process of cell division which produces two identical cells from one.


Pyruvate, Pyruvic acid:  it can be made from glucose through glycolysis, converted back to carbohydrates (such as glucose) via gluconeogenesis, or to fatty acids through a reaction with acetyl-CoA.[3] It can also be used to construct the amino acid alanine and can be converted into ethanol or lactic acid via fermentation.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen which damage cells; includes peroxidessuperoxidehydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Main sources are from the metabolism of glucose in the mitochondria, and from the further degradation of oxidized unsaturated oils in cell walls and from sugars, mainly fructose, that have attached to proteins.  ROS are the main cause for age related chronic conditions associated with the western diet (civilization).


Starch, is a chain or chains of glucose molecules that serve as an energy source for plants, and has varying degrees of digestibility--distinguished from the broader category of carbohydrate which includes other sugars.


Sugar (table sugar, sucrose): 1) a sweet, crystalline disaccharide obtained from the juice of sugar can or sugar beets.  2) In chemistry a class of carbohydrates with 3 or more carbons forming a backbone which to which are attached oxygen  and hydrogen.  Most of these carbon chains can form ring structures with one member of the ring being oxygen. They often form disaccharides that or easily hydrolyzed enzymatically into monosaccharides that usually exist in a ring formation.  3) A generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrate--consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen--many of which are used in food.     


Warburg effect & hypothesis Otto Warburg 1924 postulated (Warburg hypothesis):   The key points are (i) insufficient respiration initiates tumorigenesis and ultimately cancer, (ii) energy through glycolysis gradually compensates for insufficient energy through respiration, (iii) cancer cells continue to ferment lactate in the presence of oxygen and (iv) respiratory insufficiency eventually becomes irreversible.



Section III Cancer basics 


All cancers have grossly defective metabolism (limited pathways) because of damage to their DNA in their mitochondria by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during metabolism; this is the primary cause.[1]


The damage effect both the appearance under a microscope and its pathways in the production of ATP.


While each cancer is unique, the norm is for their mitochondria to have lost the ability to metabolize glucose, fats, and protein aerobically (with oxygen).  Cancer metabolizes only glucose by anaerobic fermentation—with minor exceptions depending upon mutations and the fusion of mitochondrial DNA (see below).


The oncogenes are transcription factors which switch the cell from aerobic to metabolism without oxygen called fermentation (see Seyfried).  This is a response to the inability of the mitochondria to produce ATP in the Krebs cycle.  Without sufficient ATP the cancer cells—like all cells--will die.


An indolent borderline tumor with an abnormal mitochondria DNA, thus with abnormal metabolism; this defective clump of cells will attract macrophages to aid in the apoptosis of the abnormal (damaged) cells.  If a very rare event occurs in which the DNA of the macrophage’s mitochondria merges with the mDNA in the tumor’s mitochondria, the tumor will gain some of the properties of the macrophage, the deadly ones being to travel and promote healing.  These are the properties of a cancer:  namely to reproduce unlimited times, to grow new blood vessels to nourish the growing cancer, to deactivate signals for program cell death, to spread into adjacent tissue, and for some the ability to colonize in some types of distant tissues (thus not to be detected in tissue by immune cells as being foreign).  This process of mitochondrial DNA fusion converts a benign tumor into a cancer, and possible a deadly one.


 Fusion can occur more than once, thus years later an indolent cancer that has invaded adjacent tissue can become metastatic,


To repeat:  This fusion process changes the tumor in two ways:  1) to acquire properties of the macrophages that permit travel to distant tissues and evade destruction because of being foreign to that tissue; 2) the properties that a macrophage confers to a tissue subsequent to injury, namely to reproduce rapidly and to acquire blood vessels to nourish the newly formed tissue during the repair process.


Like sufficient oxygen to live, a cell must have sufficient ATP to maintain their internal structure, otherwise it quickly dies and undergoes apoptosis (orderly, programmed dismantling).


Because of the abnormal metabolism of cancer, by cutting off the supply of glucose, cancer cells will quickly die, while normal cells will switch to fat metabolism—minor sources of ATP are insufficient. 


 


Section IV Cancer Metabolism Basics


The mitochondria in cancer cells make ATP by a very inefficient anaerobic fermentation process (without oxygen).  About 1/15th the amount of ATP is made per glucose molecule compared to the aerobic Krebs cycle.  Thus a cancer cell is a glucose hog; it uses (in part depending on the rate of mitosis) 8 to 200 times the amount of glucose of a normal cell.


Cancer can’t because of damage to their mitochondrial DNA use oxygen, the Krebs cycle is cut off, and thus processes which produce compounds which enter the Krebs cycle, such as from fats and amino acids.  At best these compounds can be utilized in lactic acid fermentation.  Fats are totally cut off and amino acids as building blocks of proteins for cell reproduction. 


Without sufficient ATP cells soon die.  Cancer cells main source of ATP is from formation of glucose (not fats and proteins like normal cells); thus cancer cannot produce sufficient ATP during a fast or probably when on a strict ketogenic diet.  This shortage of ATP will bring about apoptosis to cancer cells[2] while normal cells will switch to fat metabolism via the Krebs cycle (aerobically) in the mitochondria.  


Glutamine and glutamate are hogged by most cancers (NOT secondary sources of ATP for cancer cells, as some claim).  They are used and converted to other compounds that are used for other cellular vital functions including aerobic metabolism.  (The percentages of usage, I need to do a literature research.)  


Fiber and some other resistant carbs are a secondary source of energy, though we can’t digest them.  There are bacteria that can digest these carbs and thus produce glucose.  A modest amount of bacterial-produced glucose is absorbed through the intestine walls (the same too occurs with bacterial produced ethanol as a product of their digestion of glucose--about 2 grams a day are produced). 


                                              


The liver will still synthesize some glucose from fats and proteins; however, most of it is used by the liver; erythrocytes (red blood cells) and about 3% of brain cells are dependent on glucose.  The cytosol of cells can produce glucose from protein; however, it too is minimal to sustain a cancer during fasting.


The ketogenic diet might sufficiently starve the cancer, and might not because of the fibers and amino acids on the diet being used to produce ATP.  The same too for energy restricted diet,[3] but not with fasting.


Some cancers might retain some ability to metabolize aerobically glucose or some of the ketones produced in fat metabolism.  It is for this reason that even with prolonged fasting and adherence to the fasting protocol that a small percentage might not be cured. 


Because of damaged mitochondrial DNA that block steps involved in the production of ATP by the aerobic Krebs cycle, oncogenes are turned on so the cell can produce ATP by anaerobic glycolysis in the cytosol  (see appendix 1 for more details)


Having acquired this abnormal metabolism they attract macrophages, and in a rare fusion occurrence have gained the DNA of a macrophage and thereby have acquired turned on various properties in their nuclear DNA that has given that cell and its progeny certain properties of macrophage, which includes the ability to invade adjacent tissues and to colonize certain distant tissues without destruction by the immune system.  They also term on some of the genes that promote tissue healing (a function of macrophages), in particular angiogenesis, and rapid growth. 




[1] “Regardless, “all roads to the origin and progression of cancer pass through the mitochondria" and the hallmark of cancer is limited oxidative phosphorylation to varying degrees (Seyfried et al., 2014)”.  Kapelner & Vorsanger, 2014.  Limited ability to metabolize glucose with oxygen is the starting point for a cell becoming cancerous; all other factors, such as the activation of oncogenes, angiogenesis, uncontrolled reproduction, invasiveness, and fusion with mitochondrial DNA are secondary causes.  Pharma unfortunately ignores the primary cause, denies that it is the primary cause, and treats the secondary causes.  Their chemotherapy can cure about 4 of the 200 types of cancer, though they claim much, much more.  It is the nature of the marketplace to put profits before people, which I call tobacco ethics.  Prof. Ben Goldacre in Bad Pharma says:  “A perverse system produces perverse results.”

 

[2] There are variations in mutations, thus some cancers might produce enough ATP to avoid cell death.  A few patients will only have a remission, and a few their cancer will continue to grow, but now indolently as long as the patient is on a ketogenic diet.  Normal cells will produce more ATP from fats and will not be starved.  More on this in section 5, on ketogenic diet. For these patients it is important not to undergo a chemotherapy that damages fast reproducing white-blood cells, their natural defense. 

[3] “The results of ketogenic diet and calorie restricted diets are slow.  By contrast, the long-term 20 to 40%  restriction in calorie intake (dietary restriction, DR), whose effects on cancer progression have been studied extensively for decades, requires weeks–months to be effective, causes much more modest changes in glucose and/or IGF-I levels, and promotes chronic weight loss in both rodents and humans” Longo and Lee, 2011

 


Section V The dietary fix

The standard approach is to switch to a low carb diet, and then progress to an upper limit of 50 grams of carbohydrates per day;   once that occurs then fast (OR CONVERSELY FAST FIRST).

Water fasting causes the body to convert to fat metabolism over the period of fasting by the 3rd day.  Cancer’s mitochondria lack the ability to metabolize fat the ability to metabolize fats to obtain the essential energy molecule ATP, and thereby starves which bring on apoptosis of the cancer cells.  The depletion of the body’s glucose store occurs in one day, and the full conversion to fat metabolism in 3 days.  Fasting allows the undigested carbs such as fibers which are in modest amounts converted by bacteria and absorbed as glucose to be cleared from the intestines and there are no amino acids from digestion of proteins.  Some of the amino acids in during starvation are metabolized to produce ATP, an event which typically requires bodily fat to have been reduced to 4% (a thin person has 7% bodily fat) . 

Cancer tumor is made up of a diverse group of cells with varying mDNA and amount of deformity to their DNA, thus the effect of fasting and diet will vary among those cells.  The greater the cut-off from ATP the more likely is it that all the cancer cells will undergo regulated cell death (apoptosis).  Thus with an inoperable, aggressive, or metastatic cancer the greater is the need for an extreme dietary cure. 

 

Stages of starvation

 

Physiological description

 

Time period

1

Gastrointestinal absorption

 

<1

2

Glycogenolysis

 

<2

3

Gluconeogenesis

 

>2

4

Ketosis

 

>3

5  (prolonged)

Decreased gluconeogenesis and increased  cerebral ketone consumption

 

>14

 Table 1.  The five stages of starvation from the time of last ingestion (reprinted from Cahill, 1983, page 2).

The dietary fix by fasting is far easier than what the unexperienced perceive from their daily periods of hunger.  Like all larger mammals, humans have the compensatory system to survive prolonged periods of no food.  A normal weight person can go for over 50 days without food, simply by metabolizing fat.  Such a person has about 10% fat.  The adaptation actually increases metabolism by about 10% and causes a feeling of well-being and alertness, principle through the elevation of catechol amines; and hunger becomes much less with adaptation.  Those most who have fasted for period over a week attest to this.  Those in Dr. Fung’s program of curing type-2 diabetes and obesity have stated the same. Major muscle loss doesn’t occur until their fat has been reduced to about 4% of body weight.  For more on this I refer you to The Complete Guide to Fasting, Oct 2016, by Jason Fung, MD, with Jimmy Moore.  At under $20, it is a bargain given the size, quality of paper, number of illustration, number of pages, and it has a 4.5 star out of 5 rating on 304 reviews, !/30/17.    

What or the more extreme adjunction choices?  Several are referred to in the Seyfried article, first among them is Dominic D’Angostino’s work on hyperbolic oxygen.  Others include a mirror image of glucose which block glucose’s entering into glycolysis, and others which could affect the utilization of glutamate.  These topics will be developed in forthcoming article.  

Section VI:  What I would do if I had a cancer

I would use fasting and ketogenic diet prior to excision (at least 2 weeks of fasting prior).  This can shrink the cancer and provide a clearer margin making it more likely that the surgeon will remove all of the cancerous tissue. 

A second thing I would do is take 2.5 grams of aspirin, spread out over the day, with two 325 mgs before going to bed.  Aspirin promotes apoptosis of abnormal cells including cancer cells.  The results, basic search, and epidemiological (population) studies showing that regular user have a much lower risk of developing cancer and lower risk of it being metastatic (fatal)—click on aspirin’s cancer protection., and, and. 67% survival; that’s one very good reason, as to why the standard very safe drug for 60 years, is now black-listed by pharma.   

The extent in which I would use KD and fasting after excision depends on initially findings and lab reports on the tumor.  For example, a likely metastatic neoplasm, for example, even if local, such as small cell lung, requires maximum dietary treatment; a cancerous polyp removed from the colon minimal: a stage-3 cancer requires more fasting and dietary restriction compared to a stage-1 cancer.   

If fasting and ketogenic diet failed to produce a cure/extended remission and I had metastatic or inoperable cancer, I would try a longer fast and several of the adjunct treatments, such as hyperbolic oxygen, taking an optical isomer of glucose that goes to glucose receptors but can’t be metabolized, I would look into the latest journal articles on the adjuncts to fasting, try contacting the authors by mail if possible and email about options and clinical trials and , search for an oncologist who has experience with fasting treatment.   

I would undergo chemotherapies only if was shown to cure (not prolong survival, the sales pitch) or cause a remission of 5 year for over 30% of metastatic or inoperable cancers[1] 

I would not fall for the sales pitches of the oncologist that chemo is capable of bringing about for a few patients an extended remission, that the chemo is capable of prevents cancers of stage 1-3 from becoming metastatic, or that survival means cure.  The medical literature is littered with bodies brought about by treatments which the doctor believed to be beneficial but years later were shown to harm and kill.     

I would remember that industry funded studies favor industry by 32%--positive bias in journal articles compared to the raw data submitted to the FDA in phase-3 trials, NEJM reported.  And it gets worse since pharma choose an ideal group for the trial and other ways manipulates results—See Prof. Ben Goldacre’s Bad Pharma for most of the deceptions used by pharma.    

An effective chemo is the treatment of last resort. 

I have for the last year been using short-term fasting, which consists of a 7-hour window of eating.  Most days I eat low carbs (one slice of bread and an apple or piece of chocolate is the norm), I do this because I like the way it makes me feel.  I have been lean my entire life.  Only recently have I found that the short-term fasting lowers my risk for cancer.  I have gone on several whole day fasts, and am planning a 2 week fast for the experience, and to eliminate precancerous tumors—these tumors are the norm for people past the age of 50.  Fasting is easy when done with a friend, and it feels good, as explained in the next section.  Mammals have evolved to have energy to hunt and gather food when without food. 

Many sites and groups recommend fasting as part of the standard–of-care treatment for cancer.  For reasons stated above and at http://healthfully.org/rl/id4.html.  I would not submit to chemotherapy, except for the 4 types of cancer in which it can actually cure metastatic cancer, and only then if fasting failed to produce a cure.  I would also consider skeptically the adjuncts to fasting recommended, especially if they are expensive or without quality science, such as claims for herbs, special foods, or compounds such as baking soda. 

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[1] Pharma get patent based on shrinking the tumor and progress free period, and sometimes on a comparison to another chemo to establish extension compared to the other drug.  However by destroying some of the cells, the more vigorous and immune to chemo cancer cells survive and now get all of the glucose and arginine, and thus grow at an accelerated rate.  New is not better that older treatment as a 2017 British Medical Journal article reported, just more expensive.  The reported 3.4 increase in survival is not based on the real world population but on an ideal population; moreover, positive bias, the norm ,is hidden because raw data is not available. 

As required by law, I am not recommending that the public do as I do.  I am only setting out why some scientist subscribe to a different theory of cancer and its treatment, and what I would do based on their theory.  See your physician for medical advice.