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Key diet terms in documentaries

Terms--used in the documentaries ( Key terms) http://healthfully.org/rwc/id1.html     7/23/17

Long version at http://healthfully.org/rh/id6.html

The main goals of this class are for you to know that the information system is broken, what science says about diet, thud how to cure insulin resistance and fix the weight-regulatory system. 

Adipocytes (fat cells, adipose tissue) for fat storage; they secrete the hormones resistinadiponectinleptin and apelin.  Hepatocytes + liver cells, myocytes = muscle cells, leucocytes = white-blood cells, lymphocytes = lymph cells 

Adkins diet, New Adkins diet, modified around 2010 to moderate protein, see ketogenic diet. 

Amino acids from proteins:  the 20 compounds with an amine group.  They are the building blocks of proteins and poly peptides.  Digestion converts proteins to their amino acids for absorption in the duodenum (small intestine). 

AGE advanced glycation end-products are mainly proteins and polyunsaturated fats that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugar, and thus are a factor in aging and various degenerative conditions

ATP (energy molecule, Adenosine Triphosphate), ATP transfers chemical energy within the cell through the loss of one of three of its phosphate groups to become ADP (adenosine diphosphate).  ADP returns to the high state of energy PO4) through absorbing energy from the metabolism mainly of carbohydrates & fats in the mitochondria in the citric acid cycle.  ATP provides the energy for over 90% of biosynthesis (hormones, collagen, etc.), for muscle contraction, and for intra & intercellular active transport.  GTP & NADP also function as energy molecules.

Beta hydroxybutyrate (butyric acid) synthesized from acetoacetate which is derived from fats in their metabolic breakdown to produce ATP.  It has biological functions in the brain that lower risk of dementia & Parkinson’s disease through up regulating BDNF, and has other benefits.  Best source coconut oil because of its short chain saturated fats. 

Beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid are broken down in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes to liberate 2-carbon units, acetyl-CoA, or 3-carbon propionyl-CoA.  They condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle (Krebs).to produce ATP—just like glucose.

Body Mass Index (BMI, kilograms/meter2) under weight is <18.5, normal 18.5-25, overweight 25-30, obese 30-35, morbidly obese > 40.  A better measurement is body fat percentage with 25% above lean weight as obese.  US rates are grossly inaccurate:  figures are obtained by a phone survey, and the morbidly obese are not counted as obese. 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes, cigarettes and a high fructose diet.  By causing endothelial dysfunction those cells permit pathogens to colonize in the artery walls to cause inflammation that results in atherosclerosis, and CVD.  Often the term CVD is used interchangeable with coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). 

Carbohydrate (carb):  fiber, fructose, glucose, glycogen, starch, sucrose, lactose, net carbs (net carbs minus fiber):

Corn (Karo) syrup pure simple (monosaccharide) glucose, which is about half as sweet as HFCS and sucrose.   

Fiber, vegetable fiber, roughage, the carbohydrate component not broken down by digestive enzymes, but some is by gut bacteria thus it has a very low upon insulin.  Most authors consider it as zero.  Fiber is considered healthful.      

Fructose (fruit sugar) a monosaccharide; main sources are fruits, the disaccharide sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup.  Fructose is only metabolized in the liver.   Fructose is a net 15 more reactive then glucose and by glycation damages proteins throughout the body to cause age related chronic diseases.  In the liver it is converted to fat, and through glycation and excess fat causes inflammation in the liver that often leads to IR and NAFLD. 

Glucose is a sweet monosaccharide available as corn syrup (Karo in stores).  It is the main energy storage molecule for plants.  Glucose is mainly derived from the disaccharide sucrose, and from the hydrolysis of digestible starches. It can also be synthesize in small amounts.  It is the main energy source for herbivores.

Glycogen long-chains of glucose a backup energy source, the storage form of glucose for animals and fungi.  Because of bulk only 2-3-lbs are stored as stored in mainly muscles, fat, and liver cells.  It is readily hydrolyzed back to glucose, and thus is a quick energy source.  Glucose and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.

Glycation:  a process where a monosaccharide (simple sugar mostly fructose) randomly attaches to proteins or lipid; this adversely affects their functions, thus glycation is a major cause of our chronic age-related diseases.

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is made through a chemical conversion of corn syrup (glucose) into a mixture of fructose and glucose, most commonly 55% fructose and 42% glucose + 3% other sugars—developed in the 1970s. 

Saccharide, a sugar of 5 or 6 carbons, or two joined as a disaccharide such as lactose which is galactose & glucose.

Starch is long chains of glucose units.  This polysaccharide is produced mostly by green plants, seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants.  It is the molecule for energy storage of plants. 

Sucrose, table sugar, a disaccharide produced by plants; it is hydrolyzed in the stomach to of fructose and glucose. 

Caloric Energy Restricted (CER) a diet with a caloric reduction of 20% or more. 

Citric acid cycle (CAC, Krebs cycle), the cellular cycle by which glucose is converted to pyruvate then acetyl-CoA and then entering the nine step cycle to produce water and carbon dioxide, and net 36 ATP from ADP.  In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion.--Wiki

Cholesterol, a waxy sterol that is an essential component of cell walls especially in neurons, thus essential for new cells. It is used in the production of sex hormones, digestive bile, cortisol, and much more.  The main blood serum source is from synthesis in the liver (+70%)—not diet.  Cholesterol does not cause atherosclerosis but pharma claims it does.  It is in plaque because of the healing process producing new cells.  Cholesterol content in plaque ranges from 7 to 22%. Low cholesterol is associated with a higher death rate, while higher with longevity—see definitive Framingham Study.

Diabesity:  the combination of diabetes and obesity; they afflicts those on the Western diet—a recently coined term. 

Dopamine is a hormone and neural transmitter; a catechol amine that among other things creates a feeling of reward-motivated behavior.  Fructose and most recreational drugs activate dopamine which can lead to addiction.

Endothelial cells (cells of the endothelium): is the thin layer of simple squamous cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.   

Ectopic (outside its normal area) fat, is fat found in excess in various organs, stored as triglycerides. In excess it hinders their functions, of particular concern for the class is ectopic fat in the liver and pancreas.   

Estrogen, most cases used to mean estradiol (E2), the most biological active of the of the 4 female sex hormones.  It’s structure similar to testosterone.  There are estrogen receptors on cells throughout the body.  They regulate among other things the deposition of fat, and post-menopause E2 being low permits abdominal fat deposits.

Fat, Free Fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides: up to 24 carbon chain with an organic acid on end.   It is stored mainly in the adipose tissue as visceral fat around and in organs (a bad thing) and as subcutaneous fat (outside the abdomen).

Free fatty acids, water soluble found in cells prior to metabolism

Monounsaturated fats consists of their carbon chain with one double bond

Polyunsaturated fat consists of their carbon chain with two or more double bonds--least stable thus subject to rancidification, which when it occurs in cell walls compromises their functions and promotes age-related conditions.

Saturated fat consists of a chain of carbon with no double bonds, thus the most stable and flavorful form of fats.

Trans fats, made during a process of converting cheap polyunsaturated fats into stable, flavorful saturated fats,

Triglyceride, the storage form consisting of 3 fat molecule joined by glycerol to form one molecule.

Fasting, to go without food or of a limited amount, such as 500 calories per day; zero-calories fast is the water fast.  There are many types of fasting. During a fast the body prolongs the cellular repair process. 

       Alternate-day fast (ADF) often with zero calories, very low carbs, or under 500 calories.        

       Intermittent (short-term) fast, in most cases to skip the first one or two meals of a day, or the last meal.  

Ghrelin, the hunger hormone, secreted when the stomach is empty to create through the dopamine system hunger, it also functions to regulate the production and distribution of energy. 

Glycation, the random attachment of a sugar molecule (most reactive are fructose and galactose) to a protein, which in most cases compromises the functions of that protein. 

Grazing, the eating of snacks between meal and before retiring.  It causes the body to stay in carbs burning mode and that fat storing.  The typical cycle is 3 hour for insulin to lower blood glucose sufficiently to cause hunger.  

Hunger pangs occur in the stomach when contractions begin.  Hunger pangs usually do not begin until 12 to 24 hours after the last ingestion of food. A single hunger contraction lasts about 30 seconds, and pangs continue for around 30 to 45 minutes, then hunger subsides for around 30 to 150 minutes.  When fasting these pangs diminish after about 1 day, or with ALF.

Hypothalamus, the area at the base of the brain which controls hormone release from various glands. It regulates some metabolic processes including those affecting alertness, fatigue, and sleep.

Incretins:  a class of hormones secreted by the stomach and intestines into the blood in response to bulky foods to cause satiety and insulin secretion.  They are particular responsive to the presence of proteins and amino acids.

Insulin: a gateway hormone produced by the pancreas.  Its main functions are to have cells absorb glucose and amino acids and to store fat.  Insulin causes cells to switch from fat to glucose burning.  Insulin regulates other enzymes and hormones including leptin and IGFs.  Low production of insulin is the cause of type 1 and 2 diabetes.  Insulin through IGF causes building of proteins from amino acid.  We secret insulin in response to proteins in the stomach—see incretin. 

Insulin like growth factors IGF: There are seven of them IGF-1 through IGF-7, they are primarily growth hormones that promote the production of proteins from amino acids, cell proliferation, and block programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Insulin resistance (IR):   Since excess glucose is toxic, cells when full resist the signal by insulin to absorb more glucose. Thus to lower blood sugar, the pancreas releases even more insulin, and thereby cause in a person with IR a higher than normal amount of blood insulin.  IR occurs in the liver cells, and causes fat to accumulate there.  Later the muscle and fat cells develop IR.  As IR progresses, fat storage increases to cause obesity and NAFLD.  Fat also increases in the pancreas to a point which hinders (reduces) the production of insulin to become T2D.  Over 80% of Americans have IR.

Ketogenic diet (KD, very low carbohydrate diet):  the Atkins type diet, a very low carbohydrate diet that causes the body because of lack of glucose to metabolize fatty acids to produce ATP and substances that are collectively known as ketone bodies.  Most KDs do not limit calories, only carbohydrates.  Ketogenesis also occurs during fasting.  The New Atkins diet limits protein so as to avoid the insulin stimulants of leptin--moderate proteins increase rate of progress.. 

Ketone bodies:  3 water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutrate, and their breakdown product acetone) are produced by cells throughout the body that have mitochondria.  Ketone bodies are produced during periods of low food intake (sleeping, fasting, intense exercise, some diets, and starving) and also by those with untreated type-1 (insulin dependent) diabetes.  The beta-hydroxybutrate has been shown to have a number of healthful benefits. 

Ketosis, is the production of ketone bodies (a good thing) on a low carb diet, not to be confused with acid ketosis a serious medical condition caused by type-1 diabetes.

Key Opinion Leaders (KOLs):  people who rise to top positions in their area of expertise.  In fields relevant to business nearly all of the KOLs violate the standards of science to produce business-favorable spin, and are handsome rewarded for their services.  The term cenotes bad conduct.  Also sometimes called thought leaders.

Leptin:  produced by fat cells and functions to maintain a fix level of fat.   Leptin does this by a 25-40% reduction in the rate of metabolism and by creating the feeling that by eating energy will increase and moods improve, thus the desire to eat more.  Leptin functions to maintain fat storage at two months on a CER diet and to restore weight even years later.  With insulin resistance there is a down regulation of leptin which thereby increases hunger and is causal for obesity.   

Lipids are a group of naturally occurring fat-like molecules including waxes, sterols, fats, phospholipids, and others. Fats are only one type of lipid, but sometimes used to designate fat and not the other lipids. 

Lipoprotein refers to both the protein rap and the large, round molecular structure consisting of mainly water (blood) insoluble triglycerides and cholesterol. Water soluble phospholipids are also part of the rap.   Lipoprotein molecules are created in the liver and are involved in transport and deposition of its contents according to site’s needs, of which building new tissue is most common.  They are divided into subcategories by size and density (VDL, LDL, & HDL).   

Metabolic syndrome (MeS) “is a is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesityelevated blood pressureelevated fasting plasma glucosehigh serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels”, wiki. Unfortunately this cluster is promoted by pharma.  They are symptoms of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and fatty liver, which pharma doesn’t treat. 

Metabolism in reference to diet refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat or carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP mostly in the mitochondria.  Under conditions of starvation proteins also can be used to make ATP.

Mitochondria enclosed structure with its own DNA and cell wall found in the hundreds within the cells that metabolizes fats and carbs.  They are responsible for most of the essential ATP (energy molecule) produced within cells. 

NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease):  the accumulation of fat by liver cells sufficient to significantly downgrade their various functions.  The NHANES survey 1999 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population—similar % for Europe.   Probably much higher now. 

Nucleus accumbens, the area of the brain that receives dopamine signals as part of the brain’s reward system—associated with development of tolerance and addiction. 

Pancreas an abdominal organ of the digestive and endocrine that produces several important hormones including glucagon, insulin, and pancreatic polypeptide and also digestive juices that assist in absorption of nutrients in the small intestine which help breakdown proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Pharma (PhARMA), used to denote the pharmaceutical industry, the acronym for their trade organization.

Polypharmacy, the taking of five or more drugs. 

Protein, are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.  They perform a vast array of functions within organisms. Peptides are chains less than 30 amino acids, while polypeptides are longer chains—usually over 50

PYY created by the ileum (end section of the small intestines) and colon in response to food.  It causes satiety in the brain at the nucleus accumbens, as does leptin.

Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS, are chemicals generated during metabolism that cause cellular damage.

RAGE, receptors for AGE (advanced glycation end products.

Satiety is the feeling of fullness mediated by several hormones acting in the brain including PYY in leptin.  The obese secret less PYY and leptin and become tolerant to them.

Subcutaneous fat, is mostly the remaining non-visceral fat most of which is just below the skin.   

Tobacco science:  generated by tobacco ethics, industry funded studies which are by design positively distorted to sell products, or for other business objectives such as deflect criticisms, promote diseases, attack off patent drugs, etc.  Pharma is very good at marketing and is in the business of treating illness.

Tolerance, the reduced response to a drug or hormone caused by repeated, excessive exposure.

TOFI (thin on outside fat on inside) highly associated with IR and fatty liver and their comorbidities.

Triglycerides, three fat molecules joined by a glycerol molecule--the storage form of fat, not water-blood soluble.   

Type-1 diabetes (T1D), results when the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed (all or most) and this prevents the transport of glucose from the blood to within the cells for metabolism

Type-2 diabetes (T2D): occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to lower glucose to its normal range; it results from chronic IR and the accumulation of fat in the pancreas which eventually causes the decline in insulin.

Visceral (abdominal) fat, found around and in some of the abdominal organs, associated with metabolic syndrome.

Weight regulatory system, over 70 hormones function to maintain normal weight in mammals by control of metabolism, appetite, and the storage, conversion, and utilization of carbohydrates and fats. Malfunctioning of this system is responsible for the obesity and diabetes pandemics.   In the wild each mammal is not overweight.

Western diet:  over 20% of calories from sugar.  Sugar alone drives the comorbidities (conditions) associated with the Western diet (CAWD) through damage to the liver.  The elderly of the aboriginal peoples on a traditional diet only get of the CAWD only cancer, and it is under 1/4th the rate.   

Conditions associated with the western diet (CAWD) the most significant are neuro-degenerative diseases, cancer,  atherosclerosis and its associated heart attacks, strokes (hypertension is a sign, not a condition), insulin resistance which is causal for type-2 diabetes, weight gain, obesity, osteoporosis, arthritis (both types), and macular degeneration.  But for cancer these conditions are extremely rare among aboriginal peoples on their traditional diet.

Note on Wikipedia:  pharma through their KOLs has written and rewritten the contents to support their goals. 

On evidence

Prima Facie (on first appearance), icommon law jurisdictions denotes evidence that, unless rebutted, would be sufficient to prove a particular proposition or fact, thus evidence that is positively dispositive of a proposition. 

Modus operandi mode of operation, in science the underlying process that produces an observation.  Without this basis of operation, other causes are possible, and often are.  To be dispositive the modus operandi needs to be more than a theoretical explanation of what is happening.  For example looking like cholesterol in arterial plaque doesn’t prove it is cholesterol or mostly cholesterol.  Autopsy studies find the level of cholesterol at the site of leaked plaque to be between 7 and 22 percent, and it isn’t significantly oxidized.  These facts are counter the pharma generated theory of oxidized cholesterol causing the development of plaque. 

I highly recommend the two books on diet by Dr. Fung.  Fung is big on science and what to do,

Second choice would be the last two books by Taubes.  Taubes stresses history of how we got it wrong.  The two authors are for an educated audience, they let the evidence do the convincing. 

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