Terms--used in the documentaries
(§ Key terms) http://healthfully.org/rwc/id1.html 7/23/17
version at http://healthfully.org/rh/id6.html
main goals of this class are for you to know that the information system is
broken, what science says about diet, thud how to cure insulin resistance and
fix the weight-regulatory system.
Adipocytes (fat cells, adipose tissue) for fat
storage; they secrete the hormones resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin.
Hepatocytes + liver cells, myocytes = muscle
cells, leucocytes = white-blood cells, lymphocytes = lymph cells
diet, New Adkins diet, modified around
2010 to moderate protein, see ketogenic diet.
from proteins: the 20 compounds with an
amine group. They are the building
blocks of proteins and poly peptides.
Digestion converts proteins to their amino acids for absorption in the
duodenum (small intestine).
are mainly proteins and polyunsaturated fats that become glycated as a result
of exposure to sugar, and thus are a factor in aging and various degenerative
(energy molecule, Adenosine
transfers chemical energy within the cell through the loss of one of three of its
phosphate groups to become ADP
(adenosine diphosphate). ADP returns
to the high state of energy
PO4) through absorbing energy from the metabolism mainly of carbohydrates &
fats in the mitochondria in the citric acid
provides the energy for over 90% of biosynthesis (hormones, collagen, etc.),
for muscle contraction, and for intra & intercellular active
transport. GTP & NADP also function
as energy molecules.
hydroxybutyrate (butyric acid) synthesized
from acetoacetate which is
derived from fats in their metabolic breakdown to produce ATP. It has biological
functions in the brain that
lower risk of dementia & Parkinson’s disease through up regulating BDNF,
and has other benefits. Best source
coconut oil because of its short chain saturated fats.
Beta-oxidation is the catabolic
process by which fatty
acid are broken down in the mitochondrial matrix of
eukaryotes to liberate 2-carbon units, acetyl-CoA, or 3-carbon
propionyl-CoA. They condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric
cycle (Krebs).to produce ATP—just like glucose.
Index (BMI, kilograms/meter2) under weight is <18.5, normal
18.5-25, overweight 25-30, obese 30-35, morbidly obese > 40. A better measurement
is body fat percentage
with 25% above lean weight as obese. US
rates are grossly inaccurate: figures
are obtained by a phone survey, and
the morbidly obese are not counted as obese.
disease (CVD) causes, cigarettes
and a high fructose diet. By causing endothelial
cells permit pathogens
to colonize in the artery
to cause inflammation that results in atherosclerosis, and CVD.
Often the term CVD is
used interchangeable with coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease
(carb): fiber, fructose, glucose, glycogen,
starch, sucrose, lactose, net carbs
(net carbs minus fiber):
(Karo) syrup pure simple (monosaccharide)
glucose, which is about half as sweet as
HFCS and sucrose.
vegetable fiber, roughage, the carbohydrate component not broken
down by digestive
enzymes, but some is by gut bacteria thus it has a very low upon insulin. Most
authors consider it as zero. Fiber is considered healthful.
(fruit sugar) a monosaccharide;
main sources are fruits, the disaccharide sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup.
Fructose is only metabolized in the liver. Fructose
is a net 15 more reactive then
glucose and by glycation
damages proteins throughout the body to
cause age related chronic diseases. In
the liver it is converted to fat, and
through glycation and excess fat causes inflammation in the liver that often
leads to IR and NAFLD.
Glucose is a sweet monosaccharide available as
corn syrup (Karo in stores). It is the
main energy storage molecule for plants. Glucose is mainly derived from the
disaccharide sucrose, and from the hydrolysis of digestible starches. It can
also be synthesize in small amounts. It
is the main energy source for herbivores.
of glucose a backup energy source, the storage form of glucose for animals and
fungi. Because of bulk only 2-3-lbs are
stored as stored in mainly muscles, fat, and liver cells. It is readily hydrolyzed
back to glucose, and
thus is a quick energy source. Glucose
and fat are the main sources for production of ATP.
Glycation: a process where a monosaccharide
sugar mostly fructose) randomly attaches to proteins or lipid; this adversely
affects their functions, thus glycation is a major cause of our chronic age-related diseases.
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
is made through a
chemical conversion of corn syrup (glucose) into a mixture of fructose and
glucose, most commonly 55% fructose and 42% glucose + 3% other sugars—developed
in the 1970s.
Saccharide, a sugar of 5 or 6 carbons, or two
joined as a disaccharide such as lactose which is galactose &
Starch is long chains of glucose units. This
polysaccharide is produced mostly by
green plants, seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants. It is the molecule for
energy storage of
table sugar, a disaccharide
produced by plants; it is hydrolyzed in the stomach to of fructose and
Energy Restricted (CER) a diet with a caloric reduction of 20% or more.
acid cycle (CAC, Krebs cycle), the cellular cycle by which glucose is converted to pyruvate
then acetyl-CoA and then entering the nine step cycle to produce water and
carbon dioxide, and net 36 ATP from ADP.
In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix
of the mitochondrion.--Wiki
Cholesterol, a waxy
sterol that is an essential component of cell walls especially in neurons, thus
essential for new cells. It is used in the production of sex hormones,
digestive bile, cortisol, and much more.
The main blood serum source is from synthesis in the liver (+70%)—not
diet. Cholesterol does not cause atherosclerosis
but pharma claims it does. It is in
plaque because of the healing process producing new cells. Cholesterol content
in plaque ranges from 7
to 22%. Low cholesterol is associated with a higher death rate, while higher
with longevity—see definitive Framingham Study.
combination of diabetes and obesity;
they afflicts those on the Western diet—a recently coined term.
and neural transmitter; a catechol amine that among other things creates a
feeling of reward-motivated behavior.
Fructose and most recreational drugs activate dopamine which can lead to
cells (cells of the endothelium):
is the thin layer of simple squamous cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Ectopic (outside its
normal area) fat, is fat found in excess in various organs, stored as
triglycerides. In excess it hinders their functions, of particular concern for
the class is ectopic fat in the liver and pancreas.
Estrogen, most cases
used to mean estradiol (E2), the most biological active of
the of the 4 female sex hormones. It’s structure
similar to testosterone. There are
estrogen receptors on cells throughout the body. They regulate among other things
of fat, and post-menopause E2 being
low permits abdominal fat deposits.
§ Fat, Free Fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides: up to 24 carbon chain with an organic
acid on end. It is
stored mainly in the adipose tissue as visceral
fat around and in organs (a bad thing) and as subcutaneous fat (outside the abdomen).
fatty acids, water
soluble found in cells prior to metabolism
of their carbon chain with one
of their carbon chain with two
or more double bonds--least stable thus subject to rancidification, which when
it occurs in cell walls compromises their functions and promotes age-related
consists of a chain of carbon with no double bonds, thus the
most stable and flavorful form of fats.
during a process of converting cheap polyunsaturated
fats into stable, flavorful saturated fats,
Triglyceride, the storage form
consisting of 3 fat molecule joined by
glycerol to form one molecule.
§Fasting, to go without food or of a limited
amount, such as 500 calories per day; zero-calories fast is the water
fast. There are many types of fasting. During
a fast the body prolongs the cellular repair process.
Alternate-day fast (ADF) often with
zero calories, very low carbs, or under 500 calories.
Intermittent (short-term) fast,
cases to skip the first one or two meals of a day, or the last meal.
Ghrelin, the hunger hormone, secreted
stomach is empty to create through the dopamine system hunger, it also
functions to regulate the production and distribution of energy.
random attachment of a sugar molecule (most reactive are fructose and
galactose) to a protein, which in most cases compromises the functions of that
Grazing, the eating of snacks between meal and before retiring. It
causes the body to stay in carbs burning mode
and that fat storing. The typical cycle
is 3 hour for insulin to lower blood glucose sufficiently to cause hunger.
Hunger pangs occur
in the stomach when contractions begin. Hunger pangs usually do not begin until 12 to 24 hours after
the last ingestion of food. A single hunger contraction lasts about 30 seconds,
and pangs continue for around 30 to 45 minutes, then hunger subsides for around
30 to 150 minutes. When fasting these pangs diminish after about 1 day, or with
Hypothalamus, the area
at the base of the brain which controls hormone release from various glands. It
regulates some metabolic processes including those affecting alertness,
fatigue, and sleep.
Incretins: a class of hormones secreted by the
and intestines into the blood in response to bulky foods to cause satiety and insulin
secretion. They are particular
responsive to the
presence of proteins and amino acids.
§ Insulin: a gateway
hormone produced by the pancreas. Its
main functions are to have cells absorb glucose and amino acids and to store
Insulin causes cells to switch from fat to glucose burning. Insulin
regulates other enzymes and hormones including leptin and IGFs. Low production of insulin is the cause of
type 1 and 2 diabetes. Insulin through
IGF causes building of proteins from amino acid. We secret insulin in response
to proteins in
the stomach—see incretin.
like growth factors IGF: There are
seven of them IGF-1 through IGF-7,
they are primarily growth hormones that promote the production of proteins from
amino acids, cell proliferation, and block programmed cell death (apoptosis).
resistance (IR): Since excess glucose is toxic, cells when full
resist the signal by insulin to absorb more glucose. Thus to lower blood sugar,
the pancreas releases even more insulin, and thereby cause in a person with IR
a higher than normal amount of blood insulin.
IR occurs in the liver cells, and causes fat to accumulate
there. Later the muscle and fat cells
develop IR. As IR
progresses, fat storage increases to cause obesity and NAFLD. Fat also
increases in the pancreas to a point
which hinders (reduces) the production of insulin to become T2D. Over
80% of Americans have IR.
§ Ketogenic diet (KD, very low carbohydrate diet): the
Atkins type diet,
a very low carbohydrate diet that causes the body because of lack of glucose to
metabolize fatty acids to produce ATP
and substances that are collectively known as ketone bodies. Most KDs do not limit calories, only
carbohydrates. Ketogenesis also
occurs during fasting. The New Atkins diet limits protein so as to avoid the insulin
stimulants of leptin--moderate proteins
increase rate of progress..
water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutrate, and their breakdown
product acetone) are produced by cells throughout the body that have
mitochondria. Ketone bodies are produced
during periods of low food intake (sleeping, fasting, intense exercise, some
diets, and starving) and also by those with untreated type-1 (insulin
dependent) diabetes. The
beta-hydroxybutrate has been shown to have a number of healthful benefits.
Ketosis, is the
production of ketone bodies (a good thing) on a low carb diet, not to be
confused with acid ketosis a serious medical condition caused by type-1
§ Key Opinion
Leaders (KOLs): people who rise to
top positions in their
area of expertise. In fields relevant to
business nearly all of the KOLs violate the standards of science to produce
business-favorable spin, and are handsome rewarded for their services. The term
cenotes bad conduct. Also sometimes called thought
§Leptin: produced by fat cells and functions to
maintain a fix level of fat. Leptin does
this by a 25-40% reduction in the rate of metabolism and by creating the
feeling that by eating energy will increase and moods improve, thus the desire
to eat more. Leptin functions to
maintain fat storage at two months on a CER diet and to restore weight even
years later. With insulin resistance
there is a down regulation of leptin which thereby increases hunger and is
causal for obesity.
Lipids are a
group of naturally occurring fat-like
molecules including waxes, sterols, fats, phospholipids, and others. Fats are
only one type of lipid, but sometimes used to designate fat and not the other
refers to both the protein rap and the large,
round molecular structure consisting of mainly water (blood) insoluble triglycerides
and cholesterol. Water soluble phospholipids are also part of the rap. Lipoprotein
molecules are created in the liver and are involved in transport and deposition
of its contents according to site’s needs, of which building new tissue is most
common. They are divided into
subcategories by size and density (VDL, LDL, & HDL).
syndrome (MeS) “is a is a clustering of at least three of the five following
medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels”, wiki. Unfortunately
this cluster is promoted by pharma. They
are symptoms of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance,
and fatty liver, which pharma doesn’t treat.
reference to diet refers to the metabolic conversion of mainly either fat or
carbohydrate into the energy molecule ATP
mostly in the mitochondria. Under conditions of starvation proteins also
can be used to make ATP.
§ Mitochondria enclosed
structure with its own DNA and cell wall found in the hundreds within the cells
that metabolizes fats and carbs. They
are responsible for most of the essential ATP (energy molecule) produced within
§ NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic
Fatty Liver Disease): the accumulation of fat by liver cells
sufficient to significantly downgrade their various functions. The NHANES survey
1999 found NAFLD in 30% of adult population—similar % for Europe. Probably much higher now.
Nucleus accumbens, the area of the brain that receives
dopamine signals as part of the brain’s reward system—associated with development
of tolerance and addiction.
an abdominal organ of the digestive and endocrine that produces several
important hormones including glucagon, insulin, and pancreatic polypeptide and
also digestive juices that assist in absorption of nutrients in the small
intestine which help breakdown proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Pharma (PhARMA), used to
denote the pharmaceutical industry, the acronym for their trade organization.
taking of five or more drugs.
Protein, are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains
of amino acid residues. They perform a vast
array of functions within organisms. Peptides
are chains less than 30 amino acids, while polypeptides
are longer chains—usually over 50
created by the ileum
(end section of the small intestines) and colon in response to food. It causes
satiety in the brain at the nucleus accumbens, as does leptin.
Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS,
generated during metabolism that cause cellular damage.
AGE (advanced glycation end products.
of fullness mediated by several hormones acting in the brain including PYY in
leptin. The obese secret less PYY and
leptin and become tolerant to them.
is mostly the
remaining non-visceral fat most of which is just below the skin.
§ Tobacco science: generated by tobacco ethics, industry funded studies
which are by design positively distorted to sell products, or for other
business objectives such as deflect criticisms, promote diseases, attack off
patent drugs, etc. Pharma is very good
at marketing and is in the business of treating illness.
Tolerance, the reduced
response to a drug or hormone caused by
repeated, excessive exposure.
§ TOFI (thin on outside fat on inside) highly associated with IR and fatty liver and their
fat molecules joined by a glycerol molecule--the storage form of fat, not water-blood
Type-1 diabetes (T1D), results
when the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed (all or
most) and this prevents the transport of glucose from the blood to within the
cells for metabolism
Type-2 diabetes (T2D): occurs
when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to lower glucose to its
normal range; it results from chronic IR
and the accumulation of fat in the pancreas which eventually causes the decline
Visceral (abdominal) fat, found
around and in some of the abdominal organs, associated with metabolic syndrome.
§ Weight regulatory system,
hormones function to maintain normal weight in mammals by control of
metabolism, appetite, and the storage, conversion, and utilization of
carbohydrates and fats. Malfunctioning of this system is responsible for the
obesity and diabetes pandemics. In
the wild each mammal is not overweight.
§ Western diet: over 20% of calories from sugar. Sugar alone drives the
associated with the Western diet (CAWD) through damage to the liver. The
elderly of the aboriginal peoples on a
traditional diet only get of the CAWD only cancer, and it is under 1/4th
with the western diet (CAWD)
the most significant are neuro-degenerative diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis
and its associated heart
attacks, strokes (hypertension is a sign, not a condition), insulin resistance
which is causal for type-2 diabetes, weight gain, obesity, osteoporosis,
arthritis (both types), and macular degeneration. But for cancer these conditions
rare among aboriginal peoples on their traditional diet.
Note on Wikipedia:
pharma through their KOLs has written and
rewritten the contents to support their goals.