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Phrma's Tobacco Science Exposed--a list with linkis


Technical version


Western high fructose diet starting point for obesity, diabetes and the age related conditons associated with the western diet.


Four Major areas of Scams:  Heart-Cardiovascular  Cancer   Dementia    Neuroleptic drugs


Lesser ones:  bisphosphonates, NSAIDS, type-2 diabetes drugs, sedatives for pain, protein pump inhibitors.  A number of topics are found within cardiovascular disease such as statin and hypertension drugs. 


Good treated as bad or useless:  antioxidants (vitamins A, C and E, CoQ10) ascorbate, aspirin, niacin hormone replacement therapy for men and women, salt, sunshine,


Useless touted as good calcium supplements, low salt diet


Supposedly good advice, but evidence weak/contradictory:  avoid stress hormones, vitamin D, and a high ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 competitively hinders the conversion of omega 3 into anti-inflammatory factors.   


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Pharma’s tobacco science:  major myths exposed by journal articles and scholarly books by professors


This is a muckraking article; I am not pandering to popular beliefs!


Below is a short summary of such based upon my 9 years of full-time research of the academic and literature.  At healthfully.org/rc, .rl, and rh[1] are my articles summation articles supported by embedded links to journal articles.  Over the last 14 years (as of 2017) posted are over 1,000 abstracts and full articles on the healthfully site, divided according to topics.  There are internal Google search engines pasted on each page, and a table of contents page at /index.  


Major topics: metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer, dementia, & mental illnesses


DISCLAIMER:  As Ben Franklin said, we all keep our own time; thus below is about what I would do; however, I am not recommending others to violate clinical guidelines or their doctors’ recommendations. 


Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CAWD conditions associated with the Western diet, IR insulin resistance/resistant, MeS metabolic syndrome NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NEJM New England Journal of Medicine, ROS reactive oxygen species, t2d type-two diabetes, Wiki Wikipedia.


IT is worse than most of you imagine since the business model of pharma re clinical trials is to build in positive bias.  A quality 2008 study in the NEJM using the raw data for clinical trials to all the journal articles on those trials (74 articles) found that bias averaged 32%--range 11 to 69%--for short version.  This entails that even the best of trials used in an independent of industry meta-study over estimates the benefits and underestimates the side effects.  


Western Diet causes MeS, IR, Fatty Liver, Diabetes, Obesity


Because of the health consequences, this is the only long section


Metabolic syndrome:[2]  the 4 horsemen of the western high-fructose diet are fatty liver, insulin resistance, weight gain, type-2 diabetes.  They lead to the age-related conditions that are not found in aboriginal elderly peoples and others on their traditional diet.   


Industry has us looking under the wrong trees.  Metabolic syndrome starts with the high sucrose diet, in which fructose damages the liver by conversion into fat and glycation.  This leads to insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver.  This mucks-up the various regulatory systems whose down-stream effects result in the conditions associated with the western diet.  The evidence for the role of fructose as the main cause is compelling.   


Metabolic Syndrome is associated with the Western high fructose diet.  About 20% of glucose and all of fructose is transported into the liver.  Fructose—a net 20 times more reactive than glucose[3]--is metabolized only in the liver.  Our high fructose diet overloads the systems that repair glycated proteins and their oxidized end products.[4]   With a high carb meal, the excess glucose causes fructose to be converted to fat in the liver by de novo lipogenesis.  Insulin also signals fat storage to promote glucose metabolism; this gradually leads to a fatty liver (similar to that caused by ethanol).  There is very strong evidence supporting the role of fructose; for example, in a trial in which young-healthy volunteers were fed 40% of calories from fructose; they within 2 weeks developed insulin resistance and fatty liver.  Prof. Robert Lustig has done a sophisticated population study that controls for confounding variables.  His team found that only for sucrose is strongly causal to metabolic syndrome and thus obesity and diabetes—the same type of population study done to prove that cigarettes cause lung cancer. This one two punches of glycation and fatty liver cells causes functional problems in the liver that leads to IR in the hepatocytes.  The liver plays a major role in controlling blood sugar which is down regulated, and eventually this will lead to IR in the myocytes and adipocytes as they resist excess glucose uptake and thus become IR.  Insulin also regulates other hormones that are part of the weight-regulatory system, which predispose the person to gain weight.  The excess fructose[5] and the resulting IR are the main causes for nearly all the CAWD.  Those conditions, but cancer, are rare to extremely rare among the elderly aboriginal and preindustrial peoples who consume their traditional diet.  Wild fruits--with few exceptions--are both low in sugar and seasonal, thus their consumption of fructose is limited.  A second major healthful practice is their not eating.  While sleeping or not eating, autophagy is turned on, and when insulin remains low by not eating is extended.  The conditions that are extremely rare among the elderly aboriginals:[6]  insulin resistance, obesity, osteoarthritis, dementia, and atherosclerosis with its comorbidities—cancer is about 80% lower.   Their major causes of death are infections, infectious diseases, parasites, trauma, and pregnancy.  The case for our dietary fructose as the starting cause for CAWD is strong. 


The information on the role of fructose is like the history concerning tobacco from the 1920s to present day:  a general silence from government regulatory agencies, misinformation, and then actions well below what should be done in the public’s interest.  Thus we have a dietary disaster, yet the funding for basic research is inadequate, research is for drugs to mask symptom rather than on fixing a dietary problem by diet, the overall information given the public and physicians is part of the problem (not its fix), and effective legislation is lacking.  


The four horsemen of metabolic syndrome and pharma’s tobacco science: 


Insulin resistance (other than its role in weight gain), it is considered relatively benign; however it is the main cause of the diseases of Western society and these conditions compared to the aborigines are significantly elevated.  I suspect that like those with type-2 diabetes and those people with IR also have defective collagen, but to a lesser extent (diabetics have CAWD at about twice the average).  In the only study I know of that compares an aboriginal people--the Kitavans to a western society--only 5% of the Swedes had insulin level below that of the average Kitavan.[7]  Current standards for IR are thus well above the ideal level of insulin; thus based on Lindeberg’s work I estimate that over 80% of adults and 90% of seniors are IR.  This would explain why those who aren’t diabetic or overweight also have the other CAWD though their serum glucose is normal.  I believe like with diabetes those others with IR have defective collagen and thus t heir CAWD; but my extensive search of the literature has failed to find articles addressing this nexus.  Whatever the path to illness, clearly IR is most significant.  Independent of the defective collagen hypothesis is the causal factors relating to high fructose diet of high levels of insulin, IGF-1,fatty liver, and glycation leading to ROS.  To this I would add as pathogenic:  rancid vegetable oils, sex hormones mimics, sedatives (neuroleptic drugs), statins, and polypharmacy as significant causes; and I left out refined starches, stress, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.  Materials supporting his list are found at healthfully.org/r (the letter “r” for posting after 2010).    


Leptin resistance, elevated leptin; insulin up regulates leptin thus insulin resistance eventually causes leptin resistance.  Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue which regulates appetite, metabolism & functions to restore fat storage to its set level through reducing the rate of metabolism from 25% to 40% and increasing appetite.  With long-term excess weight, the normal weight is rest; thus making merely eat less and exercise more futile.  If leptin-insulin system is working right, that  person without efforts stays at normal weight—like the aborigines.  Pharma profits from having doctors focusing on lowering serum glucose and treating CODW; thus their ignorance about the weight regulatory system and how to fix it.       


Obesity and weight gain:   Having above established that that are high fructose western diet causes insulin resistance, and that insulin resistance causes fat storage, and with as little as 20 calories a day stored as fat, that is sufficient to bring about obesity in 30 years.  The issue isn’t slough and gluttony, more calories in than out, or other version of this paradigm, but what is causing the imbalance, for which the answer is insulin resistance, and insulin resistance is caused by the high sugar western diet which has brought about the dis-regulation of the control of weight.  Ignoring the system is to blame the victim; biology rules.  Obesity is a sign of the underlying condition, and not all obese are current insulin resistant—some have reversed it. 


 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), gradually in the liver on a high fructose diet glycation and the conversion of fructose to fat (its only path) this causes insulin resistance in the liver (insulin goes from pancreas first to the liver).   With insulin resistance there is a gradual increase in liver fat to become the silent driver for the conditions of metabolic syndrome--a sick liver has many health consequences including an increase in visceral fat--a sign of NAFLD.  In 1999 it was estimated by the NHANES study that 30% of adults including 80% of the obese have NAFLD.  Grossly underestimated; ultrasound is the most reliable test. Cleansing the liver is essential for good health—see below.    


TOFI  -- thin on outside fat on inside People whose weight is within the normal range, yet they have accumulated visceral fat, and in particular a fatty liver and thus insulin resistance.  Even for those who maintain normal weight, they can have IR and fatty liver and thus CAWD, including diabetes.                      


Type-2 Diabetes, Pharma holds diabetes is a lifelong progressive disease and that their comorbidities are caused by high serum glucose through glycation and its subsequent oxidation (ROS), thus ideal treatment is to keep glucose low with drugs. They also hold that eating carbs (glucose) is necessary to avoid low serum glucose caused by the drugs they are taking.  A number of critics[8] hold that it is much better to go on a very low carb diet and lower their need for medication—the opposite of pharma’s recommendation and guidelines. This ignores the facts that most of the treated diabetics have glucose levels below those who are insulin resistant (about 80% of adults), yet the conditions associated with diabetes are much higher than for those are just insulin resistant.  The high glucose with oxidative stress due to glycation theory has several counter examples.  No major organization recommends universal screening for diabetes as there is no evidence that such a program improve outcomes [by lowering glucose].[54][55]Wikipedia.  This treating of symptoms instead of the conditions is a common business practice of pharma, like treating fever instead of infection.  Thy consequence is that pharma frames the understanding of the diabetes and the search for treatments to lower the sign, high glucose, rather than search for what has gone with the weight regulatory system, how best to cleanse the liver and pancreas of excess fat, and thereby cure tye-2 diabetes with diet.  


Defective collagen, an example of the way pharma buries a fix.  It took me 4 years of full-time dietary research before I came across the role of collagen.  Pharma is happy selling drugs to lower glucose than sell more drugs for the comorbidities associated with diabetes and the drugs to treat diabetes.  Type-2 diabetics have a significantly a low level of ascorbate in tissues that store it.[9]  There is an issue with the function of ascorbate in the polyol pathway that produces collagens.  Though the research is incomplete, it is sufficient to support the conclusion that that defective and/or lack of new replacement collagen plays the major role in the comorbidities associated with diabetes.  And this hypothesis is made stronger by the down grading of the role of glucose in glycation;[10] moreover there is some evidence for the benefits from mega dose of ascorbate or myo-inositol.  The extensive amount of research on collagen during the golden era of medicine has dried up in the subsequent years.  And clinical trials of ascorbate supplement are lacking. 


Dietary fix for insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes,  obesity, and fatty liver and TOFI.  Pharma’s and food manufacturer’s fix is to eat less, exercise more, and eat a low fat diet which by default is high carbs, thus high insulin diet.  This approach doesn’t fix the mammalian weight-regulatory system because it doesn’t cure insulin resistance, thus we have the yo-yo diets. On a caloric energy restricted diet, sugars are reduces and carbs thus lowering insulin which lowers leptin, and low leptin through the brain increases appetite, and to conserve ATP reduces the rate of metabolism to conserve fat stores and this makes the person feel that he needs to eat to restore energy—the biology behind the yo-yo diets.  Type-2 diabetes is a dietary disease with a dietary cure as is insulin resistance, and NAFLD.   For example, bariatric surgery is able to cure 80% of the diabetics, and 51% at 12 year follow up.  And it is not because of extensive weight loss (as pharma maintains).   Studies show that most of these patients are off their diabetic medications before significant weight loss, thus indicating that the forced fasting is curative vector—not weight loss.  Other studies have shown that fasting and for some the ketogenic diet the cures through metabolism of excess stored fat in the liver, and for diabetics in the pancreas.  Following surgery they are on an extremely low calorie, low insulin diet; their body metabolizes the excess fat in the liver and pancreas which cures their diabetes and insulin resistance—excess insulin increases fat storage.[11]  The long-term cure rate would be higher if those surgery patients had been warned of the rule of fructose and had a low carb diet in the hospital and afterwards.  A small but growing group of physicians (Dr. Jason Fung is among the best) are now advocating fasting (both intermittent and alternate day) and lowing carbs or a ketogenic diet.  They have been able to cure type-2 diabetes and obesity by curing insulin resistance and fat storage in the liver and pancreas.    


Mediterranean diet is healthy because of the high consumption of olive oil; wrong, it is the low consumption of sugar.  This is part of the mountains of proposed causes and fixes currently circulating.  That which explains what has gone wrong and the fixes are buried within the mountain of social twaddle.  Switching to a Mediterranean diet won’t fix the fatty liver, insulin resistance, and diabetes, thus what is offered as a fix, isn’t.      


Good and bad fats:   The type of fats in the diet are important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk[26]Wikipedia (contrary to the mass of evidence, see rancid fats and saturated fats). The only way to sort out the tobacco science is to question everything, and rely upon the modus operandi.  The modus operandi:  Polyunsaturated and to a lesser extent monounsaturated fats because of their double bond(s) have free electrons which is available for attachment to by reactive chemicals, which when in sufficient amounts and occurring within cell walls, it becomes a healthy issue.   Because of oxidation, milk is high in saturated fats. 


The Dietary Fix and in concise:  The question isn’t how can I lower my risk factor for CAWD to that of those who live on Crete (Mediterranean diet),[12] but to lower it to the level of the Kitavans (footnote 5).  This requires undoing the damage done to our complex weight regulatory system, and then not damaging it again by excessive fructose.[13]  The simple answer is fasting made more effective with a low carb diet.   To learn more I highly recommend reading the two books by Dr. Jason Fung and watching his lectures on YouTube.  In a more concise form then his books, you will find my dietary advice and a longer version (my advice was arrived at prior to reading and watching his lectures).  It is easier not to eat than to significantly reduce calories long term.  With reduce calories the body goes into the starvation mode, and through the hormone leptin lowers metabolism from 25 to 40%, and this makes additional weight loss unlikely and creates the feeling that to eat more will make the diater feel better. With fasting the body burns fats, not conserve it, and increases metabolism to promote searching for foods.   It is as Dr. Fung wrote in Obesity Code, “It is more important not to eat than what you eat.”  In one clinical trial, skipping breakfast resulted in a reduction of 539.  An easy start is to do intermittent fasting (skipping a meal) and progress into alternate day fasting and thereby avoid the metabolic consequences of being in the starvation mode.     


 




Currently, there is a growing interest in clarifying the roles of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and insulin degrading enzyme in the pathogenesis of AD, and its associated neuronal cytoskeletal lesions and Aβ deposits in the brain [1–11[1] The earlier sections of my website don’t have the letter “‘r”.  Prof. Marcia Angell book on bad pharma caused changed my outlook. 

[2] These items included are clearly a result of diet, while the inclusion by pharma of hypertension and hyperlipidemia are based upon pharma’s tobacco science which claims a dietary cause, and consequently excluded.  See heading on each in cardiovascular disease section.  I have chosen to develop this section including insulin resistance because it answers the most significant issue facing health care, that of the difference between those on a traditional ancient diet, and those on a Western high fructose diet. 

[3] Net meaning I have adjusted for the rate of clearance.  Fructose is metabolized in the liver after glucose and it is cleared from the blood at half the rate of glucose.  Some sources give a glycation are of 7.5, others at 10, thus my net 20 fold rate of glycation.  

[4] This process of glycation occurs throughout the body and is causal for the conditions most of the age related conditions--RAGE and its list at bottom of Wiki page.  Pharma claims it to be caused by high glucose (to promote drug sales,) but serum levels of fructose are higher than glucose per unit of sucrose and it has a 10 fold higher rate of glycation, and its rate of clearance is about half that of glucose from the blood and liver, thus giving a net 20 times more glycation than glucose p er unit of sucrose.  The aboriginal peoples on their traditional diet rarely get those conditions.  Most average less than 20 grams a day of sugar, all sources; the US averages 153 lbs. yearly (190 grams/day, USDA 1999) with half consuming more.  Safe level of fructose varies with age, physical exertion, and genes.  Prof. Robert Lustig compares fructose to ethanol, and considers less than 40 grams daily safe—see also link and also.

[5] Refined carbs alone are not enough to cause metabolic syndrome.  A number of primitive societies have a diet high in easily digestible carbohydrates, such as the Polynesians.  The Japanese and Chinese consume up to 70% of calories in the form of white rice and noodles, yet they those who did don’t develop metabolic syndrome, not until sugar was introduced.  The Japanese for example consumed 14 grams of day of sugar, mainly from vegetables.  Most misleading beliefs about food, diet, and lifestyle related to health have directly or indirectly as a cause the industries that profit from that belief.  Refined carbs, gluten, GMOs, chemicals, fats, cholesterol,  lifestyle, stress are examples of a misleading half-truth:  a way of causing cognitive dissonance (confusion inaction).       

[6] The best book on their lack of western diseases is Western Diseases:  their emergence and prevention, 1981, Trowell and Burkitt.

[7] Results dependent on definition.  A very telling figure is on the Kitavans, Pacific Islanders who eat a traditional diet with 70% of calories from carbohydrates.  In the study of  Dr. Lindeberg, he  measured 196 Kitavans blood insulin levels:  “The average Kitavans had insulin levels lower than 95% of Swedes.”  Dr. Jason Fung, The Obesity Code 2016, p. 105. “Three of four Kitavan males and females were daily smokers…. Whereas atherothrombotic disorders were absent or rare” Linbeberg, p. 1217.

[8] The most notable is Dr. Richard Bernstein, who in his 80s, is a living example of that approach.

[9] A number of tissues such as lymphocytes, kidneys, the brain and others store 50 to 100 times the serum level of ascorbate.  Serum levels measure current usage of ascorbate.  Most mammals are a poor model for low ascorbate caused by diabetes since they have retained the ability to synthesize it--exceptions are some primates and guinea pigs. 

[10]  I shall within the next year go back and edit earlier papers to include collagen and down grade the role of glycation and rancid fats. 

[11] Prior to bariatric surgery the effective treatment for the morbidly obese was prolonged water fasting with some electrolytes and vitamins (no protein)—apoptosis of adipocytes provides amino acids.  Fast typical ran a100 days or longer, the record is 382 days. 

[12] If the Mediterranean diet was low in sugar like the traditional Oriental the risks would be much lower.    

[13] This happens to about half of those who have bariatric surgery, which cures about 80% of those with type-2 diabetes so that they are off their medications.  The food restriction allows the body to metabolize the excess pancreatic fat that causes their diabetes.  However, the distains and physicians not knowing the cause, give bad advice with its unfortunate consequences. 



Four families of block busters


 


HEART  --  CARDIOVASCULAR TOPICS:


Anticoagulants prevent ischemic events and embolism, I covered only warfarin and Plavix and compared them to aspirin.  The benefits of aspirin (more in healthful choices section) based on very extensive research of the literature has caused me to conclude that all those with a significant risk of ischemic event should be taking aspirin (325 mgs, and  uncoated for better absorption), and not the low dose to which over 80% become tolerant in the first year.  The same applies to those at high risk for an embolism.  The risk of ulcer is double from 2% to 4%, but if the cause, H. pylori, were treated, it would go down to near 2% (see section on PPIs).  The many health benefits of aspirin is why pharma through their KOLs oppose its use (see section below on aspirin.


If I had an MI or pulmonary embolism I would take 4 aspirins with water, and another 4 I would crush and take sublingually for quick absorption.  For a stroke because of a 15% chance that it is hemorrhagic, I would not take aspirin.  


Arrhythmia drugs, long term studies show that they promote arrhythmia, in Bad Pharma Supra Prof. Goldacre (pages 133-34, The CAST Trial) recounts how they were once prescribed following a MI, and this caused a minimum of 100,000 excess deaths.  Arrhythmia is over treated with drugs that are worse than nothing at all.  An August, 2017 BMJ article recounts how often an EKG is used to justify drugs for patterns which aren’t indicative of a significant risk of a blood clot or fatal fibrillation.    


Atherosclerosis: Since atherosclerosis is the result of an inflammatory process, pharma’s claims that oxidative damage to LDL causes an inflammation response and then based on looks of atheroma claims it is mainly cholesterol.  Contrary plaque contains only 7 to 27% an amorphous mix with some of it being cholesterol, based on autopsy studies, while 66% was fibrous—this has been known for over 100 years.  Pathogens within the artery walls through an immune cause response the plaque.[1]  Endothelia dysfunction is a causal factor. 


Cardiovascular disease & MI, covers a long list of what is taught that benefits pharma’s interest, and also includes a section on what is the major cause for the formation of plaque is bacteria within the artery walls that causes an immune response. Imaging and thus procedures are not done on the high risk atheroma:  Older plaque is stable and unlikely to cause a medical emergency, though, for example, it can cause stable angina.  Most MIs occur with less than 50% and typically at locations with about 20% stenosis (narrowing), prior to sudden lumen closure resulting in an MI” Wiki 2014.  Bypass and angioplasty are done on coronary arteries with occlusion of over 70%. 


Cholesterol myth and at  id5, relies upon Prof. Uffe Ravhskov and D Adams articles, and others published elsewhere on my site; their articles show that there is no causal relation between serum cholesterol , LDL, triglycerides, saturated fats, and cardiovascular disease. Mere association does not prove causality.  Pharma through scientific fraud has created a fake cause and “proves” slight benefit from cholesterol lowering drugs. 


Endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the inner lining of the blood vessels (endothelium) which increases the risk for cardiovascular disease.  Insulin resistance leading to defective collagen, reactive chemicals in the blood including fructose affect these gatekeeper cells functions.  Rancid fats and glycation affect the cell membranes, and the stress from malignant hypertension are other major causal factors.[2] 


Hypertension is not a disease but a sign of an underlying atherosclerosis and inflammatory response,[3] or a sign of kidney disease.  Hypertension drugs do not significantly reduce risks associated with CVD, because lowering blood pressure doesn’t undo existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease or reduce the rate of formation of new plaque—the exception is malignant hypertension, above 180.  Hypertension most times is signs of atherosclerosis (hard, calcified, clogged arteries); in response the heart pumps harder to get an adequate supply of blood and thus oxygen to the brain and other organs as needed.  Lowering blood pressure with drugs that have neuroleptic effects reduces quality of life, cognitive functions, and functions of organs and tissues throughout the body by reducing blood and oxygen; and the side effects create new conditions. 


High salt (sodium) diet appreciable raises blood pressure.  As Dr. Fung explains with reference, salt contributes at most to a 5% increase in blood pressure—and its dietary history.  Moreover sodium has several vital functions including lower the risk for  gout, obesity and diabetes; and it is tightly regulated by the kidneys.  Failure is a way to persuade the patient to take drugs.


LDL is the bad form of cholesterol.  LDL has besides transporting triglycerides and cholesterol to areas of growth and repair a second function of neutralize toxins excreted by bacteria[4].  One location of transport is to the tunica media of the artery walls where pathogens have caused an immune system response.    


Lipid hypothesis, hypercholesterolemia when lowered does not reduce the rate of ischemic events: 1) high serum cholesterol is not causal for heart attacks; 2) cholesterol is only a minor constituent of atheromas; 3) LDL and its contents of cholesterol and triglycerides in atheroma are a result of a response to inflammation and they are actively transported by endothelial cells on the artery walls to promote the healing process. 


Niacin under attack, in a very high dose which causes the unpleasant flush, thus 1.5 to 3 grams per day is recommended.  Another way pharma reduces competition.  Since cholesterol is produced by the liver at night, giving cholesterol lowering drugs during the day serves to increase the dose, costs, and side effects, and thus is contrary to the needs of the patient.   


Physical interventions, bypass surgery, angiogram various ablations, and angioplasty they are not effective because the plaque that leaks and causes ischemic events is fresh young, with occlusion under 50%, typically about 20%.  It doesn’t show up on imaging, moreover, there is no way of know, if it did, which one would leak to cause an MI.  Bypass and angioplasty can reduce or cure angina, however, other claims are sales pitches.  But these procedures are done to extend life in the real-world population; they don’t.  Various common interventions such as coronary angioplasty, thrombolysis, and bypass surgery at best to benefit only a small select subgroup of patients.[5] “The 60 hospitalizations prevented by CABG required 555 hospitalization for the CABG procedure, not a great trade-off!” Oxford Journals. Cardiac catheterization has issues such as “ restenosis which occurs in over 30% to 50% of angioplasties by month 6; 4) cancer from high exposure to x-rays during the 1 hour procedure; 5) “Thrombosis within a stent causing myocardial infarction and death.”  See section 20 for the longer list, at.   Anthony Colpo, The Great Cholesterol Con has chapters where he goes over the evidence.  Some of that can be found at healthfully and longer version has details about the procedures, side effects, and failure rate, and much more. 


Statins  To lower cholesterol profile and LDL which is the end product of the HGM-CoA reductase pathway also called the mevalonate pathway not only reduces its end product cholesterol (typically about 40%) it also reduces a number of other important bioactive products including CoQ10 (ubiquinones) an essential enzyme in the production of ATP in the Krebs cycle, and the production of a number of other essential compounds including the sterols (steroid alcohols), heme A, dolichols, prenylated proteins, a number or precurcer molecules DMAP, IPP, and others, and by lowering cholesterol it lowers the precursor for the synthesis of the sex hormones, vitamin D, and all steroid hormones including cortisol, digestive bile that aids the absorption of fat molecules as wells as the fat soluble molecules vitamin A, D, E, and K, and cholesterol is 30% of cell membranes and modulates membrane fluidity. Statins reduce quality of life for the elderly: a large Canadian study had 75% dropout by 2 years, and 80% in a NJ study.  See my summary paper for more details including how statins increases the risk for heart failure. Since the side effect reporting has been given to pharma; we can’t know the extent of pathologies or all of them.


Radiofrequency ablation (RAF) and other physical interventions--such as AC or pules of DC current--is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor, or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency radio frequency.  The use is justified by a surrogate outcome of change pattern on a graph rather than lives extended. In a 2015 review article on RAF, it was safe and effective; however there were inclusion of studies showing much greater risks, that this conclusion of safe, given the bias of industry, is likely wrong.[6]  I would take the conservative path and let the heart heal natural rather than injury heart tissue through ablation.    


 


CANCER:    


Cancer: Pharma promotes the 6 mutation theory, mutations which account for the properties of a cancer, and for which they have hundreds of poisonous drugs based on that theory.  Of late pharma has taken an interest in the defective mitochondria as a cause for cancer, but not as the cause, but as a downstream event. Otto Warburg and others hold that the damage to the mitochondria which results in them becoming non-functional, and this is the initiating event that makes a cell cancerous.   This disabling of the mitochondria is the way a tumor avoids apoptosis[7], thus this step is essential.  Metabolism must now occur in the cytosol in an anaerobic process called “lactic acid fermentation”. This anaerobic process produces only about 1/15th the amount of ATP per molecule of glucose metabolized in the mitochondria does in the Krebs (citric acid) cycle.  This process typically results in an indolent tumor, and often fails to meet the criteria of invading adjacent tissue.[8] The rare swap of DNA of these precancerous cells with a macrophage results in a line of cells that are not attacked as foreign when the cancer cells spread to other tissues and rapidly reproduce as though they were growing new tissue as when wound healing occurs.  So turned on there is a high rate of glycolysis to promote the “needed” cell proliferation.  Driven by the low rate of production of ATP from lactic acid fermentation, the cancer is in most cases a glucose hog. 


In 2007 I started to doubt the 6-mutation theory and believed that probably stem cell were the cause of metastatic cancer, in 2011 I switched to pluripotent cells, both being able to cause a precancerous cell to rapidly reproduce and evade the immune system—one event was more likely than six.  In 2015, I read articles on starving cancer as part of my continuing research on cancer, and a year later a seminal article on the role of macrophages which swap genes with a tumor cell.  I learnt that anaerobic metabolism is believed to be the way cancer cells avoid apoptosis and the gene swap with macrophages enables the tumor cells to evade the immune system as cancer spreads to different tissues.  The evidence for this is beyond the scope of this paper, however, posted at my website is some of the articles that argue for the Warburg hypothesis. 


Starving cancer -- Warburg Hypothesis:  In its drive to maximize profits, pharma ignores the defective metabolism of cancer cells since it promotes both fasting and ketogenic diet as a way to control and/or destroy cancer.  In 1924 by Otto Warburg, Nobel Laureate, discovered that most cancer cells have shut down their mitochondria due to gross abnormalities, thus the cells cannot metabolize fats,[9] and rely upon glucose metabolized anaerobically; and they can also metabolize glycine, but there isn’t enough available  glycine alone to sustain cancer cells.  Fasting is anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-autophagy and pro-apoptotic.  With fasting and later augmented by a ketogenic diet most cancer cells cannot obtain enough ATP for growth, and survival.  This often results in tumor shrinkage, remission, and sometimes a cure.  Around the beginning of this millennium the biology behind the Warburg observation became “a hot item”; unfortunately, the main focus is on developing drugs to augment existing chemotherapy.  Starving cancer instead of standard chemo therapy is not on their radar.  Not surprisingly regulatory bodies are not funding or approving clinical trials that without chemo starve cancers through fasting and a ketogenic diet—see Prof. Thomas Seyfried.  Nevertheless over 1,000 cases are referenced in the medical literature.


Chemotherapy in most cases targets a factor of rapidly reproducing cells such as mitosis or angiogenesis which slows, or sometimes stops the growth of cancer.  This approach not only harms the cancer cells but other rapidly reproducing cells through the body such as intestinal endothelial cells, hair cells, and immune system cells.  Therefore the therapy must be administered intermittently and for a limited time.  The negative health consequences limit their application. 


Target Therapy “blocks cancer growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules need for carcinogenesis and tumor growth rather than by simply interfering with all rapidly dividing cells (e.g. with traditional chemotherapy)” Wikipedia. Sounds good but the wedge of difference is very thin; it is marketing rhetoric.  There has been some success (namely Gleevec for chronic myelogenous leukemia).  The Target therapies for a few types of cancer (leukemia, lymphoma, and testicular cancer) have not been translated into success for the common adenocarcinoma because of fundamental differences.  Unfortunately, new therapies are marketed as target therapy, like new and improved Tide laundry soap.  However, the net results are cures or major extension of life for adenocarcinoma are lacking.  Pharma is a marketing machine, and complex molecular biological explanations are commonly used.  The war on cancer started under the Nixon administration has been a failure that pharma has profited from.   


Survival and hope’s hypothesis:  In the UK, NICE, which makes drug decision for the NIH, has repeated refused to include in their formulary drugs which are both expensive and extend life of terminal patients an average of 3 months or less.  Budget constrains is the reason.  Too often the word survival is used when in fact it means life extension.  Only a few chemotherapies can cure terminal cancer or extend the average life of a terminal patient a year longer than best current treatment.     


Sunshine and cancer:  claims that sun causes not just the benign Basal and squamous cell skin cancers, but also the 40% deadly melanoma, a claim that goes back to 1975.  Another example of pharma’s expanding the results:  the early study was done on squamous cell skin cancer; the reverse is the case for melanoma.  The advice as to limit sum exposure it turns out is not in the interest of people but pharma because the sun is needed to activate vitamin D, and with low vitamin D the risk for an  assortment of conditions significantly increased – link to seminal article 2017. 


Cancer treatments that follow the guidelines:, very few types of chemo can cure metastatic cancer can be cured by chemotherapy.  Thus chemo doesn’t prevent a stage 1-3, chemotherapy from becoming metastatic. Giving chemotherapy to a person who through excision or radiation has been cured based on the possibility that that some cancer cells might be missed and the chemo will destroy those cells is marketing crap.  If the chemo can’t cure stage IV, then it won’t destroy any remaining cancer cells missed.  Shrinking a tumor short term doesn’t equate to extended life since often the most aggressive cancer cells have survived. Chemo at best might lengthen a few months the time before that patient is diagnosed with metastatic cancer, but at the same time all those for whom excision has produced a cure, their lives have been shortened, and their health and quality of life compromised--see chemobrain, and.  A reasonable guestimate would be that such pointless treatment shortens life an 4 years on an average.  I know of no long-term study of the survival of stages 1, 2,&  3 for prostate, breast, or colon cancer that compares chemo to no treatment.  The dearth of studies is evidence that those diagnosed with non-metastatic as a group benefit.   See Cameron and Pauling trial of terminal patients comparing an untreated group to those given vitamin C.  In Scotland in the 1970s terminal colon cancer patients normally are not given chemo.  Pauling and Cameron in a trial that compared 10 gram iv infusion of vitamin C and later orally to the standard no treatment.  Their protocol extended life 5 times longer than those who had no therapy.  The subsequent 2 Mayo clinic trials were hatchet jobs that deliberately deviated from the Cameron and Pauling protocol, including skipping the infusion and using chemotherapy which harms the immune system. In Scotland other hospitals had been using similar Vitamin C treatments, and Abram Hoffer, a Canadian researcher, had very significantly improved upon the Scottish protocols by adding several more vitamins (Cameron and Pauling, Cancer and Vitamin C, 1993 p 142-144).   The science behind how ascorbate damages cancer cells has been updated recently.  If I had cancer I would limit treatment to excision, or if inoperable to having the cancer irradiated, and refuse chemo unless it was one which would have a significant cure rate for terminal patients and/or extend their life on an average by over two years as compared to the best earlier treatment.  I would then take mega dose of vitamin C and 2 grams of aspirin, do extended fast (see Warburg below) and go on a ketogenic diet.  In deciding to refuse chemo, I would consider in my determination the 32% positive bias found for neuroleptic drugs (see next section, Cherry Picking, below and NEJM article).  I am not recommending others violate clinical guidelines or their doctor’s recommendations.  


Hormonal therapy: 


Mega dose of ascorbate:


 


Dementia (neurodegenerative diseases)  


There are 6 common neurodegenerative diseases:  Alzheimer’s disease (AD, about 50% of cases), Lewy body, ALS, Parkinson’s disease, vascular dementia, alcohol-related dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with its typical loss of over 70% of spindle neurons. For the sake of simplicity, and because of an every growing number of AD cases (July 2017 BMJ article stated that AD is the leading cause of deaths in the UK for women and second leading for men), I am focusing on AD.  The insightful question raised supra on the CAWD applies:  “Why is AD/dementia virtually unknown among the elderly aboriginal peoples on their traditional diet?” [10]--well almost unknown.[11]  Since all dementias are associated with our high fructose diet, a tentative extension of the biology behind AD and how to lower risk, the findings and prevent are likely applicable to those other types of dementias.  


There is hard evidence supporting the starting role of fructose.  Fructose causes glycation, ROS (reactive oxygen species), IR, and fatty liver, and thus their complex contributor factors.[12]   The delay in onset is likely associated with the age related reduction in ATP, thus a reduction in cerebral metabolism and cellular repairs.  Studies of the elderly have found as earlier markers for the progress both reduction in cerebral metabolism and damage from ROS (reactive oxygen species) caused by glycation[13] see also.  Insulin resistance is strongly associated with AD.  Since AD is part of the age-related package of conditions associated with the high fructose western diet, I believe that fructose is the major cause through glycation, IR, and fatty liver—causal factors missing among those who are life-long on a low sugar diet, such as the Japanese, Okinawans, Chinese, Polynesians, and the Kitavans (off the cost of New Guinea) though they all eat diets high in easily digestible carbs.     


Downstream biological changes are not particularly relevant to the prevention because they are signs, not causes.  However, some signs suggest ways to prevent AD.  Pharma’s business model is to treat the signs; thus most research dollars are spent on signs and ameliorating drugs.[14]   Though I have not put up healthfully.org/r a summation paper on AD, this is the current area of research, what follows is the same pattern of dietary causes and healthful interventions. 


Journal evidence support that AD is strongly associated with oxidative damage and diminished rate of metabolism in the brain.  “Oxidative stress with AD… is manifested by damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids as well as RNA,” at 2001.  The second major contributing factor is the decline in the brain’s metabolic rate, to which oxidative stress is a cause.  Reduction in functions promotes the accumulation of Bata amyloid and tau protein in the dendrites.[15]  Third major cause is the diminished activity of the neurotropic factors (NTFs) as a result of the first two:  the repair and cleanup systems aren’t functioning very well.  Details of these causes have been worked out, for example the diminished ability of lysosomes to remove tau protein and beta amyloid.  Beta amyloid accumulates in the mitochondria of AD patients and diminishes its enzymatic activity of respiratory chain complexes and thus oxygen consumption and.   


  Contributing to the reduction in the house-keeping process is the wide use of sedatives.  They are marketed as panaceas for emotional problems, mild to moderate pain, muscle relaxants, hypertension, COPD, premenstrual syndrome, and so on.  To this I would add the statins since they block the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (the melavonate pathway), thus statins reduce CoQ10 by about 40%, and CoQ10 is an enzyme used in the production of ATP.  This reduction in ATP is particularly pathogenic in the elderly because of their already reduced production of ATP.   By the age of 65, a reasonable estimate for those taking one or more of these drugs that cause sedation would be over 75%.[16]  Prof. Peter Gotzsche[17] with a much shorter list of sedative drugs found that among the Dutch by the age of 75 had averaged 6 years on them.[18]   I have search for and failed to find population studies on this likely association of sedatives with AD.     


Alcohol is a water soluble sedative, and it associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome and alcohol-related dementia.  One causal mechanism is as a neurotoxin possible due to thiamine deficiency; others add B12 and zinc deficiency.  Olson 1998 estimates that one-fourth of the dementia population has alcohol related problems. These effects fit the pattern of drugs that affect neurotransmitters or lower the brains ability to engage in cellular maintenance such as by reducing the production of ATP, they are causal for dementia.  


The association of AD with diabetes is 3 fold (a much greater rate if only the elderly on insulin were counted) entails issues with the production of collagen (describe in the above section on metabolic syndrome).  A number of journal articles implicate collagen IV involvement and other collagens  (collagens XVIII, VI & XXV) in the pathogenicity leading to AD.  As speculated earlier, by extension insulin resistance is likely to affect the production of collagen and therefore a much larger population than diabetics are at   increased risk.[19]  IR has also been found through elevated insulin and thus elevated IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor one) to increase the risk of AD.  Since diabetics are insulin resistance their IGF-1 is also elevated and this would in part account for their increased risk.  The list of downstream causes is longer; therefore, I am not attempting to catalogue them all. 


 Another important contributing factor is the reduction in the use of things that lower the risk for AD. Major ones include the reduction in the post-menopausal use of HRT (estradiol with progesterone from a compounding pharmacy offers the most protection, while Prempro the least).  Over the last hundred years there has been a steady decline in testosterone levels-- testosterone is also neuro-protective.  Aspirin, like the major sex hormones, is neuro-protective and like them has been shown to very significantly lower the risk for AD.  Aspirin was for over 4 decades been the leading NSAID, now it is seventh, and most of its sales is for the very low dose (under 130 mg) and often enteric coated.  Low does though developing tolerance is ineffective.  The enteric coating entails aspirin is even less effective because peak absorption is delay 5 hours, and with food an average of 8 hours.  In the gut bacteria remove the acetate group which hinders some of the salubrious functions of aspirin. 


  What I have done to lower my risk for AD is based upon neuro-protective and dietary changes to avoid CAWD.  I have cut back my consumption of sugars to an average of 20 grams a day--mainly from fruits and vegetables; cut back carbs to less than 15% of calories, and thus increased coconut oil to an average of 110 grams daily because of its conversion to beta hydroxybutyrate.  I take daily the anti-inflammatory and antioxidants:   aspirin 325 mgs uncoated, topical testosterone prepared in a compounding pharmacy, 300 mgs of CoQ10 suspended in oil, 2 grams of sodium ascorbate, and vitamin E.  I still have an exercise program, though I am in my 7th decade:  I run an average of 5 miles, swim twice, and do weight lifting 5 hours per week.  Aerobic exercise stimulates neurotrophins.  I do intermittent fasting 6 days a week whereby I skip breakfast, and I cut back on my carbohydrates to less than 15% of calories 6 days a week.  And since the age of 33, I have reduced my intake of drugs that act upon neuron, such as alcoholic beverages to about 2 ounces yearly, marijuana to zero, and drugs by pharma to zero.  The exception is caffeine, to which my consumption average over the years about 1 cup of tea a day.  We ought to take better care of our body than our car.      


At this point I would propose that the reduction in metabolism is causally associated with a reduction in the house-keeping functions in the brain which results in the.  Likely significant environmental causes besides fructose for AD,[20] I would place first among lifestyle causes the most neuroleptic drugs that affect neurotransmitters and lower brain metabolism (cause sedation) which would include some hypertension drugs, statins through reduction in CoQ10, and most psychiatric drugs.[21]  Some others such as opioids, ethanol would at most have a weak association. 


 


Psychiatric Diseases and Sedatives


Pharma’s record confirms their business model driven by corporate incentives described as tobacco ethics which produces tobacco sciences; thus their pattern profiting by illness, illustrated in the above sections; it is repeated with psychiatric drugs.  The prima facie fact which proves that they promote illness is their side effect of sedation.[22] Though neuroleptic drugs are classified and marketed by pharma and their KOLs as antidepressant antipsychotic and such, they aren’t.  Drowsiness is the major side effect of 95%[23] of these drugs when they are given in effective doses; they are sedative/tranquillizers, and sedation isn’t the long-term fix.  In 98%[24] of the cases taking a sedative daily is like throwing kerosene on a fire.  Lowering cognitive functions exasperates issues.  Drugging the patient for months and years increases the frequency of relapses into major depression three fold, compared to no treatment.  The vast majority of untreated depression episodes are self-limiting, short term.  Sure if one is very sad because she had her dog put down, taking a few pills that slows the brain down and increases sleep will reduce the duration and intensity of depression.  By taking that drug for a year or more as over half the patients do increase frequency of subsequent depression episodes.  And because they are downers, few people use these drugs for a recreational high because they cause general apathy, boredom, mild depressive mood, reduced sexual function, that is why they are called “downers.  For about half who have taken the sedative at a higher dose, they will find withdrawal difficult, and many will fail to get off their drugs; this fact has contributed to pharma’s marketing decisions.  These adverse consequences of the downers are not stressed (if mentioned) in medical textbooks or heard in continuing education classes.  Pharma’s mantra is safe and effective; thus withdrawal agitation, depression, and worse are attributed to the underlying condition in the patient not the drugs that have caused it.  Man can easily be manipulated by a broken evidence base into doing harm, and their verbal response is he is doing good.


A major myth is that drugs have significantly lowered the number of inmates in mental hospitals by curing mental illness.  This was done by using the high dose to limit behavior by sedation and subsequent damage to the brain.  Critics such as Dr. Peter Breggin and by Prof. Joanna Montcrieff consider such long-term high dose treatment with drugs similar to lobotomy and shock treatment in that all 3 damage the brain, and this damage alters behavior.  But it wasn’t until government policy under the conservatives Margret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan moved the inmates to the streets and nursing homes that the numbers dropped.  This, for many of the inmates was possible because of extreme sedation through drugs such as Thorazine (Chlorpromazine); but long-term sedation is not cure, and relapses are common as was tardive dyskinesia.  The damage to quality of life  doesn’t justify the treatment. 


 


HARM:  The evidence of mass harm is before our eyes, just ignore what is being said and observe.  Observe over the last 6 decades the increase in numbers of mental illnesses; observe the number of bizarre murders and suicides committed by those on psychiatric drugs and the increase in peoples on social security for psychiatric disability.  “Psychiatrist Peter Breggin claims that antipsychotic drugs induce a ‘chemical lobotomy’ and cause permanent brain damage, leading to a form of drug-induced dementia (Berggin 2008).  Furthermore Breggin and others suggest that the “brain disabling effect of these drugs is not an unintended side effect, but the intended consequence of drug treatment.” Prof Moncrieff, The Bitterest Pill, p. 3-4.   This pattern of harm is similar to that caused by alcohol.  Ethanol is heavily promoted by industry as a social feel-good drug, and psychiatric drugs as happy pills (mothers little helpers-Valium) and as fixes for neurosis.  Fortunately physicians don’t give out prescriptions for ethanol or recommend it, but they do with psychotropic drugs.  The market for neuroleptic drugs has been expanded to other uses, examples:  tramadol for mild to moderate pain, Spiriva for COPD, beta blockers for hypertension, vareniclinecytisinenortriptyline, and clonidine for  nicotine addiction, and Flexor as a muscle relaxant—all have drowsiness as a side effect and all effect neurotransmitters. Their short-term benefits[25] are minimal for a select ideal subgroup in the clinical trials; and negative if results are adjusted for pharma’s thirty plus percent positive bias (scientific fraud), and still worse if real-world population is used and tracked for years.  Like with statins, there is a chorus of academic critics, but there effectiveness in changing standard medical practice is at best minimal--for books.     


The STORM   Unfortunately, humans are the only species that long-term deliberately changes the levels of neurotransmitters with non-nutritive substances.  Plants make neural intoxicants to keep animals away, and yeast produces ethanol as a byproduct of metabolism for a similar reason.  But humans are a social animal and relief of boredom is a strong drive.  Because of this, there is a propensity to upset nature’s complex balance of neurotransmitters; and pharma profits therefrom.  In the US 23% of women between the age of 40 and 59 are on antidepressants, years 2005-2008, NCHS Data Brief, and this is for only one psychiatric indication (for men it was 8.5%).  And though they are recommended for short-term usage, the National Health and Nutrition Survey found more than 60% are taking them for 2 years or longer, and 14% over 10 years.[26]  A Finish study (likely of higher quality) found 45% were still on them at 5 years (Gotzsche p 255-6).   Thus in addition to the legal and illegal recreational drugs with have pharma’s cornucopia. I’d guestimate that that by the age of 60 there is only 15% of adults who not on pharma’s drugs with neuroleptic effects (see some of the non-psychiatric uses above). 


For those who want to read more I have a list of books with brief evaluations—all I have read.  As mentioned before, the site has a collection of lectures and documentaries, each with a brief description and rating.  You can use the internal Google search engine to fine more journal articles.


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[1] Ignore the Awkward:  How the cholesterol myths are kept alive, Prof. Uffe Ravnskov 2010, Website www.thincs.org 

[2] Hypertension is a sign of atherosclerosis the cause for leaking plaque.  Thus I hold that hypertension is a sign not a cause. I am skeptical but withhold opinion on the role of cortisol and other stress hormones; I failed to find strong basic-science demonstration its modus operandi.  It could be another case of pharma creating a dead-end path for research.  If stress is causal then those living in a war zone, such as some of the primitive tribes of Borneo—having both conflicts with neighboring villages and violence within the village—they  would have because of stress the conditions associated with the western diet. 

[3]   A possible exception:  malignant hypertension, 180 over 110.  Because lowering it significantly has only a “modest” effect on lower the risk for CAWD, it is possible just a sign of the major cause atherosclerosis and the formation of young plaque that leaks.

[4] Ignore the Awkward Prof. Uffe Ravnskov, Chapt. 13. 

[5] The best summation of the evidence that I have found is in The Great Cholesterol Con, by Anthony Colpo.   

[6] Need I describe the broken system for reporting side effects in a system where pharma determines if it is their drugs, and where with harm done from a procedure there is a strong financial/legal incentive to bury the mishap as a normal risk of procedure.  n

[7] Through the mitochondria is one of the two pathways for turning on the process that results in cells apoptosis—see 1998.

[8] This traditional requirement which distinguishes cancer for a tumor, has been ignored by pharma and thus physicians. 

[9] However the cytosol can convert some amino acids to pyruvate for entering the lactic acid fermentation process.  This however is not a major source of energy, but can at end stage lead for some to necrosis, wasting.   

[10] Western Diseases Their Emergence and Prevention Denis Burkitt, and Hugh Trowell, 1981, 21 chapters of which 18 of the chapters are by a physician who has published on the country/region where he practiced medicine and on the frequency of the conditions of the western diet.  A unique resource of dietary & disease information, full of interesting details. The leading extended work on traditional diets and their diseases. The subsequent volume, Western Diseases, Their Dietary Prevention and Reversibiliy,1994, is  based upon the then current flawed health guidelines, and is thus well below their first book.

[11] Exceptions are genetic causes such as for Huntington’s chorea, and the trisomy chromosome 21, known as mongolism and now called Down syndrome and toxic foods such as the Polynesians who had a mysterious condition once common, and thought possible to be caused by their making flour from the seeds of cycad tree (Cycas minronesica, the condition is known as Lytico-bodig disease), and certain toxic drugs such as the Jamacia ginger and ethanol.   The cycad contains a neuro toxin, and the condition resembles ALS.

[12]The neurodegeneration that occurs in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is consistently associated with a number of characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss, abundant neurofibrillary tangles and dystrophic neurites, amyloid-β deposits, increased activation of pro-death genes and signaling pathways, impaired energy metabolism /mitochondrial function, and evidence of chronic oxidative stress…[12] All these and the extensive abnormalities in insulin and insulin like growth farctorm typer I and II (IGF-I and IFG-II) signaling mechanisms in the brains with AD, shows … their expression levels are marked reduced in AD” At 2005 Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.  All these are downstream of fructose, glycation, IR, and fatty liver.  

[13] This article, like most others blames high glucose toxicity reasoning from the high rate of diabetics, and thus ignores the white elephant fructose which is a net 20 times more reactive than glucose in vivo.  Fructose is cleared from the blood at half the rate of glucose, thus doubling form 10 times to 20 times the net rate of glycation compared to glucose. 

[14]  This is one more example of why pharma should be barred from research and limited just to market of drugs without patent rights. Pharma has taken us a long way from the golden era of medicine to the modern snake-oil era. 

[15] This is an early part of the process leading to neuron death and the formation of clumps of Beta Amyloid and tau proteins found in the advanced stage of AD. 

[16] Polypharmacy is the norm for the elderly.  A study of German hospital emergency emission of those in the 7th decade found the average use of prescription drugs were 6.     

[17] See his book Deadly psychiatry and Organized Denial, or his Oxford University lecture.

[18] By diagnosis on the basis of the symptom of cognitive decline, a very significant percentage of seniors are diagnosed with AD whose cognitive level of function would gradually return once off the drugs that are sedative or block CoQ10.  

[19] This would be part of the explanation as to  why those who are only insulin resistant are at a risk much greater than the elderly of aboriginal peoples for which AD is virtually unknown. I am not denying also the role of fatty liver and glycated proteins.  

[20] I am not denying the role of APOE-4 gene, but in itself it is not sufficient to bring on AD, otherwise those in aboriginal societies would have far more cases of AD. 

[21] Drugs which cause sedation as a side effect or reduction the production of ATP, in particular statins which lower CoQ10 typically 40% would top my list, to which I would add opiates and marijuana as additional candidates. 

[22] Generalizations have exceptions, but for conciseness and thus clarity, I will often not mention them.  Some like opioids and antihistamines are taken for their clearly valuable effects.

[23] A few are stimulants, such as Wellbutrin, Cathinone, those prescribed for ADD (attention deficit disorder), and several atypical classes  that used such as chloral hydrate.  They are quite different molecular entities when compared to the 95% of prescriptions.   

[24] “I believe we could reduce our current usage of psychotropic drugs by 98% and at the same time improve people’s mental health and survival (see Chapter 14) page 13, Prof. Peter Gotzsche, Deadly Psychiatry and Organised Denial--the best book on this topic.  Gotzsche’s book is the most complete work I have found that explains what is wrong with standard drug-based psychiatric treatments. He acknowledges that there is use for the most extreme case, where sedation can bring an end to agitation, but this should be done with a plan to end the medication shortly thereafter.   

[25] When there is a dearth of studies by industry and the FDA, for example long-term trials with important endpoints, the reason is likely to be that the results are significant worse than the short-term trials.  The same applies when surrogate endpoints are used such as lower cholesterol instead of the reason for treatment prevention of MIs.  The wiggle room expands when subjective markers are used like mood evaluation and when breaking blind is the norm because of inactive placebos—See Gotzsche supra 50-56. 

[26] These percentages are low:  usage has increased over the last 10 years, prescribing off-label is common, thus a drug not indicated for depression are used to treat depression, thus a person who is prescribe an antidepressant is likely to be given at some point a drugs that isn’t licensed for depression.  For example, Neurontin was approved only for neuropathic pain and seizures, it was prescribed 94% of the time for off-labeled uses including depression.  And third the government as a norm fudges figures.  



rating.  You can use the internal Google search engine to fine more journal articles.


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Bad drugs and grossly over prescribed


 


  Acetaminophen (Paracetamol, APAP):  It is the most widely sold over-the-counter drug for the relief of pain[1], fever, and headaches.  It is found in over a 100 over-the-counter and prescription preparation (mostly opiates).  As a mild analgesic APAP’s inclusion n with an opiate cannot be justified given its severe side effect of causing live damage.  The annual percentage of potentially fatal acute liver failure (ALF) hospitalizations caused by acetaminophen rose from 28 percent in 1998 to 51 percent in 2003.  A major cause is that acetaminophen is indicated as APAP on most opiate prescriptions and the common use of the over-the-counter Tylenol as a second drug for relieve of pain.  In a well-designed study it was found that 39% of those taking the recommended dosage of APAP had 3 to 8 times the upper limit for ALT a marker for liver toxicity.  APAP in 2010 caused 56,000 emergency-room visits, 26,000 hospitalizations and 1,600 liver failures, and this is based on a system designed to grossly underestimate the severity of the problem.  New FDA limits and warning goes into effect in 2014.  A study of 205,487 children age 6-7 found that the use of APAP is associated with a 323% increase in the risk of asthma.  Four weeks of prenatal use of APAP is associated with lower motor, cognitive development and more behavioral problems when compared to a sibling by over 70% for each.  Other study found that APAP during pregnancy was associated with hyperactivity (ADHD, another with failure to develop testes (cryptorchidism), and a third with lower masculinization development.  The medical literature on liver toxicity goes back to the 1960s.  Pharma is very good at controlinge information given to doctors and the public.  . NSAIDs but for aspirin.  They have minimal pain reduction effect, work well as an anti-inflammatory drug by reducing inflammation, thus their affect upon pain is minor, as demonstrate by clinical trials.  Unfortunately they increase with long-term usage the incidents of heart attacks and strokes—from 50% to 400%.  This includes the block buster Celebrex which increases with long-term usage risk 200%


.   Alzheimer’s disease (AD) drugs do not affect the course of the disease.  Factoring in the side effects, they are worse than a placebo.  Downers are often included in treatment of AD, as if the patient needs more cognitive impairment.   Avoid for AD Aricept (donepezil), tranquilizers, & Cognex (tacrine) and all other drugs given to purportedly slow the progress of AD (they don’t) or make the patient more manageable.  Downers shorten life and increase signs of dementia.  Acid reflux condition (heart burn) should be treated with over-the-counter antacids; avoid the prescription alternatives, especially protein pump inhibitors which have rebound effect if stopped which increases heart burn.  There is a lack of long-term effective drugs for COPD.  Restless-leg syndrome and many of the minor complaints that are listed in the Merck Manual, such as fungal infection of the nails are best left unmedicated. 


Antibiotics (1) need to take the full course of them.  BMJ study showed no benefit, and it promotes antibiotic resistance, which can occur not just in the bacteria causing the pathology, but other bacteria, and since bacteria transfer DNA.  2) Resistance to older  antibiotics is common—most cases this has not significantly occurred. 


Healthful substances:  glutathione, myo- inositol , Vitamin e taken in a large dose as an antioxidant


 


Influenza medications:  Tamiflu and other flu medications are junk.  Pharma is very good at making a drug not worth taking appear as safe and effective. 


 


NSAIDs long-term usages cause more harm than good, but for aspirin.  They have minimal pain reduction effect, work well as an anti-inflammatory drug by reducing inflammation, thus their affect upon pain is minor, as demonstrate by clinical trials.  Unfortunately they increase with long-term usage the incidents of heart attacks and strokes—from 50% to 400%.  This includes the block buster Celebrex which increases with long-term usage risk 200%.  


NSAIDs


Osteoporosis is not  prevented or ameliorated by calcium supplement since bone remodeling is controlled my estradiol and testosterone, both of which as supplement in sufficient dose causes positive remodeling.  2nd, an excess of calcium can contribute to atherosclerosis and hypertension  through being deposited in the artery walls.


 


Protein Pump Inhibitors (PPI):  Heart burn is not considered pathological and thus is treated with protein pump inhibitors instead of the cause H pylori.   H. pylori are associated with a 75% increased risk for MI.


 


PPI increase the risk of colon cancer, and continued usages of PPI after treatment to eradicate H. pylori increases risk 240%, NEJM 2017.


 


Protein Pump Inhibitors:  One more example if the physicians knew what time it is, they would not prescribe them.  It is a drug which results in millions of early death.  Among those I have uncovered is about 40% increase in Alzheimer’s disease, and thus likely most or all of the other neurodegenerative diseases with an idiopathic cause.  Since there are over 5 million Americans with this disease and it is causal for about 40% of cases that is 2 million cases—based on 2 population studies.  It is causal for osteoarthritis[2]--rate unknown--as too for the intestinal conditions involving hostile bacteria (Croon’s disease, diverticulitis,[3] irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and others of the large and small intestines.  Other conditions include cardiovascular disease and kidney disease.    


 


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http://healthfully.org/rg/id4.htmlIs it that bad???  Are doctors dupes of the pharmaceutical industry (pharma)?  Are guidelines based upon junk science generated by pharma?  Are over half the drugs not worth their side effects?   Is bias in journal articles the norm because pharma owns the raw data and thus writes up clinical trials to promote sales, and thus exaggerate benfits and hide side effects; this would entail that he evidence base for drugs is broken?   Is the FDA a lap dog for pharma?   Obviously, the billions spent on advertising are designed through product recognition to promote sales counter to the evidence.  The patent system entails that in order to get a slice of the market, such as for statins, each major pharma company makes me-to drugs and through junk science and marketing carves a niche in the market, even when the drug is significantly inferior.  To promote patented drugs junk science is done to show that older ones are inferior.  Moreover pharma funds and determines the class content of physicians’ continuing education classes.  In a similar way pharma controls the clinical guidelines.  Pharma provides an assortment of incentives for doctors to be drug pushers.  Like with cigarettes, I watch people harm themselves.  But for you to make better choices, it all starts with your recognition that pharma--like all corporations--functions under profit-maximizing tobacco ethics.  A number of doctors have broken rank and exposed the results of corporate tobacco ethics upon the field of medicine including diet.  I have created an informative list of their lectures and documentaries with links to YouTube.


 


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Not covered by position papers but for which I have posted journal articles.


 


Pharma’s mantra is safe and effective and new and better.


 


Sugar and in particular its fructose is considered as empty calories.  Rather the fructose in excess overwhelms the cellular process for repair of glycation and the excess production of fat that is stored in the liver.  This role of fructose causes insulin resistance and ultimately the age related conditions associated with the western diet. 


Low value surgeries


 Stopping 5 low value surgical procedures could save HNS …  (71 low value surgeries). NEWS http://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j5186?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign_name=201711313&utm_source=etoc_daily  article published article in BJS http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bjs.10719/abstract;jsessionid=340DBF11B733BED666D79F3C5C32C38A.f04t02?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+usage+report+download+page+will+be+unavailable+on+Friday+24th+November+2017+at+21%3A00+EST+%2F+02.00+GMT+%2F+10%3A00+SGT+%28Saturday+25th+Nov+for+SGT


 


 


Healthful and bashed by pharma


Aspirin, CoQ10, Estradiol (HRT), Fasting,  Niacin, Salt, Saturated fats, Testosterone, Vitamin C, Vitamin E   


 


 


 


Why I cherry pick the articles of critics


There is a fundamental conflict between maximizing profits and ideal medical treatments,  Below are some of the patterns of deception I found in their medical journal articles.  It is the reason why I rely upon articles in leading journals that go against the grain of what pharma’s promotes.  These critics have met the standards of evidence, and given the pressure of pharma upon journals, I find my reliance justified.      


First:  Positive bias in clinical trials is the norm.  In the only case I know of this type, a study was published in 2008 in the NEJM that compared the raw data on neuroleptic drug to published articles & found positive bias averages 32%--in NEJM and.  Four professors compared the raw data submitted to the FDA--which they obtained through the Freedom of Information Act—with the journal articles based on the subsequent published clinical trials.  In every one of the 74 articles there was scientific fraud; results were spun with positive of between 11% and 69%.  Pharma’s goal is to market drugs for the sake of maximizing profits, what I call tobacco ethics.  The broken regulatory systems of the FDA and EMA permit it:  the police are on the take, and the legislative bodies want it that way.  The EMA and FDA do not review the journals to compare pharma’s submission of clinical trials for patent approval with the journal articles generated from them.  The EMA, FDA, and other regulatory bodies will not share the raw data with researchers.  This allows pharma to commit scientific fraud that goes undetected (with rare exceptions).  A second way to tell if a drug works in the real-world of health care would be to upon up the records of national health services, military veteran administrations, insurance companies, and hospitals; they aren’t.  A third area of regulatory collusion is in the reporting of side effects.  The forms filled out for side effects are sent to the manufacturer of the drug for evaluation and summation of findings.  This adds to the deception worked in pharma’s ran clinical trials to which pharma by design minimalizes and buries side effects.  Doctors are prescribing drugs based on tobacco science.  Prof. Ben Goldacre in Bad Pharma, makes the broken evidence base the theme.  I have collected and posted my collection of journal articles, and then some more.   


Second I often rely upon older articles for two reasons, one before the pro-business reforms of the mid 80s the management of clinical trials was in the main ran by universities that did not have to sign away the rights to analysis of the raw data and had a much freer hand in designing the trial.  That the results differ from the now off patent drugs is a result of changes that have occurred with oversight and that bias now is the norm.   It is as Prof. Goldacre laments, the evidence base for treatments is broken.  


Third:  Meta studies are built upon biased trials:  they summarize the tobacco science.    


Fourth:  side effects are grossly underestimated:  Pharma’s mantra is “safe and effective”.  This mantra is repeated by the media, in journal articles, medical textbooks, class to medical student, and to physicians in the required Continuing Medical Education (CME) class that are nearly always funded by pharma, and thus are in reality done to promote drugs.  Pharma is not in the education business.  The reporting of side effects has been handed over by the FDA to the company marketing the drug.  Pharma’s clinical trials by design understate side effects. 


Fifth:  healthful popular interventions are through tobacco science shown to be ineffective, and if possible harmful.  Examples are the use of 325 mg aspirin, Atkins diet, and multiple grams of vitamin C and high doses of the other antioxidant vitamins A and E.  Others are mostly ignored, such as CoQ10 and starving cancer with fasting and very low carb diet. 


Sixth, pharma promoting a drug or supplement as first line, then when it fails to work, to recommend drugs.  Thus low salt diet to lower hypertension and calcium supplement to improve bone density for osteopenia.


Seventh, Food manufacturers create cognitive dissonance through multiplying the claims as what is healthful.  The list of miracle foods and super diets is long.  In this way the science behind the healthful is buried in a mountain of half-truths and dead end fixes. 


Eighth, healthful, cheap fixes and drugs are recommended known that they are ineffective.  This creates in the patient a desire to lower blood pressure with a low salt diet or strengthen their bones with calcium supplements.  When this fails the doctor then reaches for the prescription pad. 


Ninth, basic research that won’t lead to drugs, use drugs that can’t be patented, use drugs that or procedure that cures a condition that currently is chronic, a non-drug treatment that is effective, and where promising research is not further pursued.   These threads I research to see if there is adequate merit to results contrary to pharma’s business model. 


Eleven Pharma follows their pattern of treating a subgroup which might or might not benefit from the outcome a patient would chose such as life extension. Then pharma in their funded trials of low standards through positive bias “shows” a large group of patients benefit. Then new guidelines written by their KOLs extend treatment to the larger group.  A classic example is the treatment of malignant hypertension with blood pressure drugs moderately lower the risk of a stroke, or that of statins to lower cholesterol for homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia to prevent ischemic events, and then extended to nearly half the adult population, to a total cholesterol reading of total cholesterol above 200 mg/dL as desirable to treat—see Wikipedia for the complex current standards. 


  Often an alternative such as stress and the stress hormones become the focus of research.   


Tenth,


Some of the assumption made are outgrowth of the pattern of evidence rather than based upon journal articles.  This is because researchers are look under the wrong tree, and most are looking for drugs.  It is comparable to lack of articles on a helio-centered solar system in 1542— Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543. 


Second is studies done to show a healthful drug or supplement isn’t.  Pharma is in the business of treating illness.


For example pharma and thus corporate media have been going after opiates and offering as replacement sedatives for mild and moderate pain—which of course doesn’t reduce pain, just the awareness of the pain.  And the sedatives are more addicting than opiates, which pharma vigorously denies, like once tobacco companies denying that cigarettes cause cancer.


Every major avenue has been tweaked for profits by pharma.  Below is a list of areas I have researched, summarized my research and posted this summary, and also posted the journal articles in support of my findings.  You’d be surprised at how many rocks of medicine are on a foundation of tobacco slime. 


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[1] The mechanism for pain reduction is through the reduction of inflammation by blocking only 50% of COX2 & COX1 enzymes and inhibiting the production of prostaglandins (Goodman & Gilman’s pharmacology textbook 2007 edition, p. 693).  This is why they are classified as “mild analgesics” (G & G at 681).  Other claims as to medicinal use is at best only weekly supported. 

[2] With 3 year usage of PPI there is a 54% increased risk of hip fracture—at 2006.

[3]In the Western world about 35% of people have diverticulosis while it affects less than 1% of those in rural Africa,[5]Wikipedia.


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Harvard Prof. Dr. Marcia Angell: “We certainly are in a health care crisis, ... If we had set out to design the worst system that we could imagine, we couldn't have imagined one as bad as we have.”